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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Open Access and Article Processing Charges in Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery Journals: a Cross-Sectional Analysis

Dominique VervoortI; Jessica G.Y. LucII; Michel Pompeu B. O. SáIII; Eric W. EtchillIV

DOI: 10.21470/1678-9741-2021-0289

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Open access (OA) publishing often requires article processing charges (APCs). While OA provides opportunities for broader readership, authors able to afford APCs are more commonly associated with well-funded, high-income country institutions, skewing knowledge dissemination. Here, we evaluate publishing models, OA practices, and APCs in cardiology and cardiac surgery.
Methods: The InCites Journal Citation Reports 2019 directory by Clarivate Analytics was searched for “Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems” journals. Sister journals of included journals were identified. All journals were categorized as predominantly cardiology or cardiac surgery. Publishing models, APCs, and APC waivers were defined for all journals.
Results: One hundred sixty-one journals were identified (139 cardiology, 22 cardiac surgery). APCs ranged from $244 to $5,000 ($244-5,000 cardiology; $383-3,300 cardiac surgery), with mean $2,911±891 and median $3,000 (interquartile range [IQR]: $2,500-3,425) across 139 journals with non-zero available APCs ($2,970±890, median $3,000, IQR: $2,573-3,450, cardiology; $2,491±799, median $2,740, IQR: $2,300-3,000, cardiac surgery). Average APCs were $3,307±566 and median $3,250 (IQR: $3,000-3,500) for hybrid journals ($3,344±583, median $3,260, IQR: $3,000-3,690, cardiology; $2,983±221, median $2,975, IQR: $2,780-3,149, cardiac surgery) and $1,997±832 and median $2,100 (IQR: $1,404-2,538) for fully OA journals ($2,039±843, median $2,100, IQR: $1,419-2,604, cardiology; $1,788±805, median $2,000, IQR: $1,475-2,345, cardiac surgery). Waivers were available for 51 (86.4%) fully OA and 37 (37.4%) hybrid journals. Seventeen journals were fully OA without APCs, one journal did not yet release APCs, and four journals were subscription-only.
Conclusion: OA publishing is common in cardiology and cardiac surgery with substantial APCs. Waivers remain limited, posing barriers for unfunded and lesser-funded researchers.

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

APCs = Article processing charges

BMC = BioMed Central

EP Europace = The European Journal of Pacing, Arrhythmias and Cardiac Electrophysiology

ESC = European Society of Cardiology

IQR = Interquartile range

JACC = Journal of the American College of Cardiology

JAMA = Journal of the American Medical Association

JTCVS = Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

OA = Open access

REC = Revista Española de Cardiología

USD = U.S. Dollarl

INTRODUCTION

Scientific publishing is a multibillion-dollar industry, costing steep license fees for institutions to provide access to journals, high individual costs to subscribe to journals or buy articles, and little to no remuneration for reviewers’ time. Authors not associated with institutions covering full or partial access to major journals are forced to find alternate methods of accessing publications, such as pirating, especially if unable to afford fees to access articles(1). Similarly, authors are frequently charged article processing charges (APCs) to publish “open access” (OA). This further impedes early-career researchers, researchers from lesser-funded institutions, and researchers from most low- and middle-income countries to publish articles(2). In response to high publishing fees, predatory journals are increasingly pervading scientific practice(3). Predatory journals promise quick and easy OA publishing for a fee, typically at only a fraction of non-predatory journals, resulting in millions of dollars generated by these journals, even during the coronavirus disease 2019 (or COVID-19) pandemic(4).

Despite the growing OA discourse, little is known regarding the most common subscription models and APCs. This study evaluates publishing models, OA practices, and APC amounts in cardiology and cardiac surgery journals.

METHODS

The InCites Journal Citation Reports (JCR) directory by Clarivate Analytics was searched to identify journals categorized as “Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems” for 2019. Sister journals of included journals, defined as journals published by the same publisher and associated with the included journal, were further included. Journals were manually distinguished as being predominantly related to cardiology or to cardiac surgery based on their titles and, where applicable, associated professional societies. Publishing models (OA only, subscription only, or hybrid) and APCs, if applicable, were defined for all journals. OA only was defined as journals making all articles publicly available to readers, subscription only as journals making articles only available to readers with a (personal or institutional) subscription, and hybrid as a combination thereof. APCs were presented as mean±standard deviation and median with interquartile ranges (IQR). For journals with APCs, the availability of partial or full waivers as presented on the journal’s or publisher’s website was recorded.

RESULTS

In 2019, 137 non-duplicate journals were identified in the JCR Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems category. Twenty-four journals were identified as sister journals of JCR-indexed journals for a total of 161 journals. One hundred thirty-nine journals were categorized as predominantly cardiology, of which 88 were hybrid, 49 fully OA, and two subscription. Twenty-two journals were categorized as predominantly cardiac surgery, of which 10 were hybrid, 10 fully OA, and two subscription.

APCs ranged from $244 to $5,000 ($244-5,000 cardiology; $383-3,300 cardiac surgery), with an average of $2,911±891 and median of $3,000 (IQR: $2,500-3,425) across 139 journals with non-zero and available APCs ($2,970±890, median $3,000, IQR: $2,573-3,450, cardiology; $2,491±799, median $2,740, IQR: $2,300-3,000, cardiac surgery). Average APCs were $3,307±566 and median $3,250 (IQR: $3,000-3,500) for hybrid journals ($3,344±583, median $3,260, IQR: $3,000-3,690, cardiology; $2,983±221, median $2,975, IQR: $2,780-3,149, cardiac surgery) and $1,997±832 and median $2,100 (IQR: $1,404-2,538) for fully OA journals ($2,039±843, median $2,100, IQR: $1,419-2,604, cardiology; $1,788±805, median $2,000, IQR: $1,475-2,345, cardiac surgery). Waivers were available for 51 (86.4%) fully OA journals, of which 16 (14 cardiology; two cardiac surgery) automatically applied waivers for authors from eligible low- and middle-income countries. Waivers were available for 37 (37.4%) hybrid journals, none of which were automatically applied. Seventeen journals (14 cardiology; three cardiac surgery) were fully OA and did not charge APCs. Supplemental Tables 1 and 2 present findings for cardiology and cardiac surgery journals. All values are presented in U.S. Dollars.

Supplemental Table 1 - Publishing models and article processing charges for cardiology journals indexed in InCites Journal Citation Reports.
Journal Name Impact
Factor
Publishing
Model
Article Processing
Charges (USD)
Waivers Available
Acta Cardiologica 1.208 Hybrid 2,995 No
American Heart Journal 4.153 Hybrid 3,250 Case by case (Research4Life)
American Journal of Cardiology 2.570 Hybrid 2,960 Case by case (Research4Life)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 2.674 Hybrid 3,860 No
American Journal of Physiology: Heart and
Circulatory Physiology
3.864 Hybrid 3,000 No
Anatolian Journal of Cardiology 1.223 Open Access Free -
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology 1.131 Open Access 2,250 Yes, upon request
Annals of Thoracic Medicine 1.456 Open Access Free -
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 2.434 Hybrid 3,620 Case by case (Research4Life)
Arquivos de Brasileiros de Cardiologia 1.450 Open Access Free -
Atherosclerosis 3.919 Hybrid 3,200 Case by case (Research4Life)
Basic Research in Cardiology 11.981 Hybrid 4,390 No
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2.078 Open Access 2,380 Case by case
Canadian Journal of Cardiology 5.234 Hybrid 3,200 Case by case (Research4Life)
Canadian Journal of Cardiology Open - Open Access 2,100 Automatic (Research4Life)
Cardiology 1.791 Hybrid 3,530 No
Cardiology Clinics 1.811 Hybrid 3,150 Case by case (Research4Life)
Cardiology in Review 1.816 Hybrid 2,400 No
Cardiology in the Young 1.000 Hybrid 3,160 No
Cardiology Journal 1.669 Open Access 900 Case by case
Cardiology Research and Practice 1.292 Open Access 2,100 Automatic
Cardiorenal Medicine 1.754 Open Access 2,580 Case by case
Cardiovascular and Interventional
Radiology
2.034 Hybrid 3,860 No
Cardiovascular Diabetology 7.332 Open Access 3,170 Case by case
Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy 2.615 Open Access 1,390 Yes, upon request
Cardiovascular Digital Health Journal - Open Access 2,800 Automatic (Research4Life)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 4.069 Hybrid 3,860 No
Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology 1.771 Hybrid 3,260 No
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 0.897 Open Access 461 No
Cardiovascular Pathology 1.756 Hybrid 3,000 Case by case (Research4Life)
Cardiovascular Research 8.168 Hybrid 4,592 No
Cardiovascular Therapeutics 2.538 Open Access 2,100 Automatic
Cardiovascular Toxicology 2.284 Hybrid 3,860 No
Cardiovascular Ultrasound 2.051 Open Access 2,790 Case by case
Catheterization and Cardiovascular
Interventions
2.044 Hybrid 3,800 No
Circulation 23.603 Hybrid 3,450 No
Circulation: Arrhythmia and
Electrophysiology
4.393 Hybrid 3,450 No
Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging 5.691 Hybrid 3,450 No
Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions 5.493 Hybrid 3,450 No
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality &
Outcomes
5.071 Hybrid 3,450 No
Circulation: Genomic and Precision
Medicine
4.534 Hybrid 3,450 No
Circulation: Heart Failure 6.033 Hybrid 3,450 No
Circulation Research 14.467 Hybrid 3,450 No
Circulation Journal 2.540 Open Access 1,929 No
Clinical Cardiology 2.248 Open Access 2,475 Yes, upon request
Clinical Research in Cardiology 5.268 Hybrid 3,760 No
Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements - Hybrid 2,760 No
Congenital Heart Disease 1.663 Open Access 1,200 Case by case
Coronary Artery Disease 1.335 Hybrid 2,400 No
Current Cardiology Reports 2.434 Hybrid 3,860 No
Current Opinion in Cardiology 2.149 Hybrid 3,000 No
Current Problems in Cardiology 2.966 Hybrid 3,000 Case by case (Research4Life)
e-Journal of Cardiology Practice - Open Access Free (invited
submissions only)
-
Echocardiography 1.393 Hybrid 2,700 No
ESC Heart Failure 3.902 Open Access 3,366 Case by case (Research4Life)
EuroIntervention 3.993 Open Access Free -
EP Europace 4.045 Hybrid 4,592 No
European Heart Journal 22.673 Hybrid 4,592 No
European Heart Journal: Acute
Cardiovascular Care
3.813 Hybrid 3,300 No
European Heart Journal: Cardiovascular
Imaging
4.841 Hybrid 4,549 No
European Heart Journal: Cardiovascular
Pharmacotherapy
6.696 Hybrid 3,830 No
European Heart Journal: Case Reports - Open Access 726 Yes, upon request
European Heart Journal: Digital Health - Open Access 3,225 Yes, upon request
European Heart Journal: Quality of Care
and Clinical Outcomes
- Hybrid 4,280 No
European Heart Journal Supplements 1.655 Hybrid 4,592 No
European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2.296 Hybrid 3,300 No
European Journal of Heart Failure 11.627 Hybrid 4,300 No
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 5.864 Hybrid 3,300 No
Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine 3.915 Open Access 2,490 Case by case
Global Heart 3.862 Open Access 1,583 Automatic discount
Heart 5.213 Hybrid 3,100 No
Heart and Vessels 1.618 Hybrid 3,260 No
Heart Failure Clinics 2.327 Hybrid 2,680 Case by case (Research4Life)
Heart Failure Reviews 3.538 Hybrid 3,860 No
Heart & Lung 1.630 Hybrid 2,860 Case by case (Research4Life)
Heart, Lung and Circulation 2.194 Hybrid 2,500 Case by case (Research4Life)
Heart Rhythm 5.731 Hybrid 3,500 Case by case (Research4Life)
Heart Rhythm: Case Reports - Open Access 1,050 Automatic (Research4Life)
Heart Rhythm O2 - Open Access 2,150 Automatic (Research4Life)
Hellenic Journal of Cardiology 4.047 Open Access Free -
Herz 1.033 Hybrid 2,760 No
International Heart Journal 1.906 Open Access 1,447 No
International Journal of Cardiology 3.229 Hybrid 3,470 Case by case (Research4Life)
International Journal of Cardiology:
Congenital Heart Disease
- Open Access 2,000 Automatic (Research4Life)
International Journal of Cardiology:
Heart and Vasculature
- Open Access 2,550 Automatic (Research4Life)
International Journal of Cardiovascular
Imaging
1.969 Hybrid 3,260 No
JAMA Cardiology 12.794 Hybrid 5,000 No
Journal of Cardiology 2.246 Hybrid 3,000 Case by case (Research4Life)
Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation
and Prevention
1.383 Hybrid 3,375 No
Journal of Cardiovascular Computed
Tomography
2.892 Hybrid 3,150 Case by case (Research4Life)
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 2.424 Hybrid 3,900 No
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic
Resonance
5.361 Open Access 2,680 Case by case
Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine 1.225 Hybrid 2,800 No
Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 1.675 Hybrid 2,570 No
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 2.598 Hybrid 3,150 No
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
and Therapeutics
2.322 Hybrid 3,000 No
Journal of Cardiovascular Translational
Research
3.312 Hybrid 3,860 No
Journal of Electrocardiology 0.944 Hybrid 2,830 Case by case (Research4Life)
Journal of Geriatric Cardiology 2.491 Open Access Free -
Journal of Interventional Cardiac
Eletrophysiology
1.277 Hybrid 3,260 No
Journal of Interventional
Cardiology
1.758 Open Access 2,100 Automatic
Journal of Invasive Cardiology 1.470 Open Access Free -
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 4.133 Hybrid 3,320 Case by case (Research4Life)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 3.366 Hybrid 3,860 No
Journal of the American Heart Association 4.605 Open Access 2,750 Automatic
Journal of the American College of
Cardiology (JACC)
20.589 Hybrid 3,000 Case by case (Research4Life)
JACC: Basic to Translational Science - Open Access 3,400 Automatic (Research4Life)
JACC: CardioOncology - Open Access 2,500 Automatic (Research4Life)
JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging 12.740 Hybrid 3,000 Case by case (Research4Life)
JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions 8.432 Hybrid 3,000 Case by case (Research4Life)
JACC: Case Reports - Open Access 600 Automatic (Research4Life)
JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology - Hybrid 3,000 Case by case (Research4Life)
JACC Heart Failure 9.140 Hybrid 2,500 Case by case (Research4Life)
Journal of Cardiac Failure 3.623 Hybrid 3,040 Case by case (Research4Life)
Journal of the American Society of
Echocardiography
5.508 Hybrid 3,000 Case by case (Research4Life)
Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 2.054 Hybrid 3,860 No
Kardiologia Polska 1.874 Open Access Free -
Kardiologiya 0.264 Subscription - -
Korean Circulation Journal 2.322 Open Access Free -
Minerva Cardioangiologica 0.713 Subscription - -
Nature Reviews Cardiology 20.260 Hybrid (as of
2021)
Not yet available No
Netherlands Heart Journal 1.933 Open Access Free -
Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular
Diseases
3.700 Hybrid 3,000 Case by case (Research4Life)
Open Heart - Open Access 2,628 Case by case
Pace-Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 1.303 Hybrid 3,200 No
Pediatric Cardiology 1.564 Hybrid 3,260 No
Perfusion-United Kingdom 1.234 Hybrid 3,000 No
Postepy w Kardiologii Interwencyjnej 1.347 Open Access 244 No
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 6.763 Hybrid 2,800 Case by case (Research4Life)
Pulmonary Circulation 2.205 Open Access 2,000 Case by case
Respiratory Medicine 3.095 Hybrid 3,500 Case by case (Research4Life)
Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine 0.659 Open Access 1,250 Case by case
Revista Española de Cardiología (REC) 4.642 Hybrid 3,000 Case by case (Research4Life)
REC: CardioClinics - Hybrid 1,500 Case by case (Research4Life)
REC: Interventional Cardiology - Open Access Free -
Revista Portuguesa de Cardiologia 0.960 Open Access Free -
Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal 1.084 Hybrid 2,995 No
Texas Heart Institute Journal 1.023 Open Access Free -
Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine 4.755 Hybrid 3,300 Case by case (Research4Life)

BMC=BioMed Central; EP Europace=The European Journal of Pacing, Arrhythmias and Cardiac Electrophysiology; ESC=European Society of Cardiology; JAMA=Journal of the American Medical Association; USD=U.S. Dollar

Supplemental Table 1 - Publishing models and article processing charges for cardiology journals indexed in InCites Journal Citation Reports.
Supplemental Table 2 - Publishing models and article processing charges for cardiac surgery journals indexed in InCites Journal Citation Reports.
Journal Name Impact
Factor
Publishing
Model
Article Processing
Charges (USD)
Waivers Available
Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery 3.058 Open access 2,390 No
Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular
Surgery
1.584 Open access 383 No
Annals of Thoracic Surgery 3.639 Hybrid 3,000 Case by case (Research4Life)
Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 1.053 Open access Free -
European Journal for Cardio-Thoracic
Surgery
3.486 Hybrid 3,087 No
General Thoracic and Cardiovascular
Surgery
1.088 Hybrid 3,260 No
Heart Surgery Forum 0.404 Open Access 950 No
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic
Surgery
1.675 Open Access Free -
Journal of Cardiac Surgery 1.490 Hybrid 2,900 No
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular
Anesthesia
2.258 Hybrid 2,680 Case by case (Research4Life)
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 1.506 Open Access 2,490 Case by case
Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 1.415 Subscription - -
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 7.865 Hybrid 3,300 Case by case (Research4Life)
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular
Surgery (JTCVS)
4.451 Hybrid 2,950 Case by case (Research4Life)
JTCVS Open - Open Access 2,000 Automatic (Research4Life)
JTCVS Techniques - Open Access 2,000 Automatic (Research4Life)
Multimedia Manual of Cardio-Thoracic
Surgery
- Open Access Free -
Operative Techniques in Thoracic and
Cardiovascular Surgery
- Hybrid 2,740 Case by case (Research4Life)
Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular
Surgery
2.133 Hybrid 2,740 Case by case (Research4Life)
Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular
Surgery: Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual
- Hybrid 3,170 Case by case (Research4Life)
Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 1.209 Subscription - -
Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
Reports
- Open Access 2,300 No

USD=U.S. Dollar

Supplemental Table 2 - Publishing models and article processing charges for cardiac surgery journals indexed in InCites Journal Citation Reports.

DISCUSSION

OA publishing is widely available as hybrid or fully OA journals in cardiology and cardiac surgery, yet APCs vary from $244 to $5,000 per article. APC waivers were available for authors from eligible low- and middle-income countries, either automatically applied or on a case-by-case basis. Few journals considered financial need among authors from high-income countries, presumably with the assumption that authors would be able to find the means to cover the costs. Our findings suggest that, while the academic shift to OA is clearly visible(5), enormous financial barriers on non-funded authors remain in the pursuit of OA publishing regardless of home country or institution. Although research on OA and APCs remains limited, lower average APCs were found in ophthalmology, multiple sclerosis research, and global health(6-8).

While waivers were often considered by publishers, these were typically only considered when publishing in a fully OA journal. Most journals publishing as hybrid models did not have waiver availability, requiring authors to opt for subscription publication. Hybrid journals were on average $1,300 more expensive than fully OA journals, which is confirmed by previous findings from research spending by North American institutions(9). As these journals make up a majority of journals, especially those with higher impact factor, few authors are able to seek OA publishing of their work without having research funding or going through tedious processes of obtaining one-off external funding. Furthermore, while a majority of publishers clearly listed APCs, some publishers did not make APCs publicly available, which may deter and even deceive authors. Moreover, amongst the available waivers and discount criteria, researchers from upper-middle-income countries find themselves in an “upper-middle-income trap”, as they are commonly not eligible for such discounts or waivers despite lower income and standards of living compared to high-income countries. For example, authors from Brazil would not be eligible for discounts or waivers amongst the majority of main publishers (and thus journals); yet, there is vast variation in institutional and personal funding availability, with most researchers being unable to bear APCs. Lastly, APC waivers were typically defined on the basis of authors’ affiliation, which may limit authors from low- and middle-income countries who have recently moved to or are studying or training in high-income countries, authors from lower socioeconomic status, or authors without research funding (e.g., non-doctoral graduate students, residents) whose institution is not based in eligible countries. Some journals offer minimal discounts (e.g., 10-15% discount) to partnering institutions, which may perpetuate barriers for those without funding and only skew the dissemination of research towards those with research funding. While some smaller journals are independently operating or associated with non-profit organizations or professional societies, most journal have contracts with large publishing entities that jointly comprise the billion-dollar academic publishing industry, wherein profit margins run up to 30%(2). Few OA or hybrid journals had no APCs and were most commonly covering or based in Latin America, where free-of-charge OA journals are commonplace and supported by both professional society and governmental support, a model that may be extended elsewhere(10).

Publishing does not come without a cost, as journals and publishers must hire editorial staff, manage online platforms and servers, maintain publication relations, and ensure typesetting of accepted publications. Nevertheless, they equally rely on the voluntary time of reviewers and most editors, whereas societal, industry, and other partnerships typically result in substantial monetary and in-kind support for journals to cover large shares of the fixed costs. The true costs of publishing a single article remain unclear, but estimates have shown to be as low as US$300 per article, far lower than the requested APCs(11).

The commonly cited publish-or-perish mentality in academic medicine has led to an increase in the number of predatory journals, seeking to take advantage of vulnerable authors facing barriers to publishing in acknowledged journals or wanting to find a quick way to publish. Previously known cardiovascular journals have been bought to leverage a pre-existing reputation and attract clinicians and researchers, yet they only publish verbatim (i.e., not reviewing or editing submissions), generating tens up to hundreds of thousands of dollars per journal per year(12). What is especially concerning is the potentially important knowledge remaining undetected and not disseminated as a result of such predatory journals. For example, the field of global cardiac surgery is nascent, and local studies reporting on cardiac surgery outcomes in low- and middle-income countries have been identified in predatory journals. Barriers for authors from these countries are upheld by high APCs (less able to publish in certain journals) and non-OA (less able to access articles), underscoring the need to change the academic publishing narrative.

Limitations

Several limitations are inherent to this analysis. We used JCR to identify established journals and their sister journals, but we are aware of a number of journals not listed on JCR that are legitimate (e.g., PubMed/MEDLINE indexing, societal affiliation). However, as the number of journals included on JCR is large, our analysis paints a representative picture. Moreover, various journals give discounts for society members or on a case-by-case basis, which may lead to a vast variety in the exact APCs to be paid for some authors. Lastly, we utilized the highest APCs per journal, which sometimes have lower APCs for article types other than original articles, such as case reports. However, as most original research is published as original articles, we believe this most accurately reflects the status of authors.

CONCLUSION

OA publishing is common across cardiology and cardiac surgery journals with substantial APCs. Fees are prohibitive for unfunded and lesser-funded researchers in the absence of broader waiver considerations.

REFERENCES


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Authors' roles & responsibilities

DV Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; final approval of the version to be published

JGYL Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; final approval of the version to be published

MPBOS Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; final approval of the version to be published

EWE Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; final approval of the version to be published

Article receive on Thursday, November 19, 2020

Article accepted on Thursday, March 18, 2021

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