Domingo M. Braile
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):I-IIPDF PT PDF EN
Edward Araujo Júnior; Liliam Cristine Rolo; Luciano Marcondes Machado Nardozza; Antonio Fernandes Moron
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):II-IVPDF PT PDF EN
Antonio Alceu Dos Santos; Alexandre Gonçalves de Sousa; Hugo Oliveira de Souza Thomé; Roberta Longo Machado; Raquel Ferrari Piotto
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):1-9Abstract PDF EN EMC
OBJECTIVE: To assess the 30-day and 1-year mortality associated to the red blood cell transfusion after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. This procedure has been questioned by the international medical community, but it is still widely used in cardiac surgery. Therefore, it is needed more evidence of this medical practice in our country.
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 3,004 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting surgery between June 2009 and July 2010. Patients were divided into two groups: non-transfused and transfused.
RESULTS: The transfused group totaled 1,888 (63%) and non-transfused 1,116 (37%). There were 129 deaths in 30 days, with 108 (84%) in the transfused group and 21 (16%) in the non-transfused (P<0.001). One year mortality totaled 249 distributed in 212 (85%) among transfused patients and 37 (15%) in non-transfused (P<0.001). The adjusted odds ratio for mortality in patients transfused was 2.00 (P=0.007) in 30 days and 2.31 (P=0.003) in 1 year. Even in low risk patients (age < 60 years and EuroSCORE < 2 points), and so with fewer comorbidities, both outcomes, 30 day and 1 year mortality were significantly higher in the transfused patients (7.0% vs. 0.0%, P< 0.001) and (10.0% vs. 0.0%, P< 0.001), respectively.
CONCLUSION: The perioperative red blood cell transfusions after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery increased significantly the 30-day and 1-year mortality, even after the adjustments for comorbidities and other factors. So, new therapeutic options and autologous blood management and conservation strategies should be encouraged to reduce blood products transfusions.
Keywords: Blood transfusion. Mortality. Blood cells. Coronary artery bypass. Myocardial revascularization. Postoperative complications.
Mário Issa; Álvaro Avezum; Daniel Chagas Dantas; Antônio Flávio Sanches de Almeida; Luiz Carlos Bento de Souza; Amanda Guerra Moraes Rego Sousa
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):10-21Abstract PDF EN PDF PT
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to identify predictors of hospital mortality in patients undergoing aortic surgery. The secondary objective was to identify factors associated with clinical outcome composed hospital (death, bleeding, neurologic complications or ventricular dysfunction).
METHODS: A cross-sectional design with longitudinal component. Through chart review, 257 patients were included. Inclusion criteria were: aortic dissection Stanford type A and ascending aortic aneurysm. Exclusion criteria were acute aortic dissection, of any kind, and no aortic aneurysm involving the ascending segment. Variables assessed: demographics, preoperative factors, intraoperative and postoperative.
RESULTS: Variables with increased risk of hospital mortality (OR, 95% CI, P value): black ethnicity (6.8, 1.54-30.2; 0.04), cerebrovascular disease (10.5, 1.12-98.7; 0.04), hemopericardium (35.1, 3.73-330.2; 0.002), Cabrol operation (9.9, 1.47-66.36; 0.019), CABG simultaneous (4.4; 1.31 to 15.06; 0.017), bleeding (5.72, 1.29-25.29; 0.021) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time [min] (1.016; 1.0071.026; 0.001). Thoracic pain was associated with reduced risk of hospital death (0.27, 0.08-0.94, 0.04). Variables with increased risk of hospital clinical outcome compound were: use of antifibrinolytic (3.2, 1.65-6.27; 0.0006), renal complications (7.4, 1.52-36.0; 0.013), pulmonary complications (3.7, 1.58.8, 0.004), EuroScore (1.23; 1.08-1.41; 0.003) and CPB time [min] (1.01; 1.00 to 1.02; 0.027).
CONCLUSION: Ethnicity black, cerebrovascular disease, hemopericardium, Cabrol operation, CABG simultaneous, hemostasis review and CPB time was associated with increased risk of hospital death. Chest pain was associated with reduced risk of hospital death. Use of antifibrinolytic, renal complications, pulmonary complications, EuroScore and CPB time were associated with clinical outcome hospital compound.
Keywords: Aortic Aneurysm. Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic. Aortic Aneurysm, surgery.
Priscila Aikawa; Angélica Rossi Sartori Cintra; Cleber Aparecido Leite; Ricardo Henrique Marques; Claudio Tafarel Mackmillan da Silva; Max Dos Santos Afonso; Felipe da Silva Paulitsch; Evandro Augusto Oss
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):22-28Abstract PDF EN
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results of isolated on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in patients > 65 years-old.
METHODS: Patients undergoing isolated on-pump CABG from December 1st 2010 to July 31th 2012 were divided in two groups: GE (elderly > 65 years-old, n=103) and GA (adults < 65 years-old, n=150). Preoperative data, intraoperative (as cardiopulmonar bypass time, aortic clamping time, time length of stay in mechanical ventilation - MV - and number of grafts), and postoperative variable (as morbidity, mortality and time length of stay in hospital) were analyzed during hospitalization.
RESULTS: In GE, the morbidity rate was greater than in GA (30% vs. 14%, P=0.004), but there was no difference in the mortality rate (5.8% vs. 2.0%, P=0.165). In GA, there was higher prevalence DM (39.6% vs. 27%, P=0.043) and smoking (32.2% versus 19.8%, P=0.042); and in GE, higher prevalence of stroke (17% vs. 6.7%, P=0.013). There was no difference between the groups regarding intraoperative variables. After multivariate analysis, age > 65-year-old was associated with greater morbidity, but it was not independent predictive factor for in-hospital mortality. Considering in-hospital mortality, stay in ward time length (P=0.006), cardiac (P=0.011) and respiratory complications (P=0.026) were independent predictive factors.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that patients > 65-year old were at increased risk of postoperative complications when submitted to isolated on-pump CABG in comparison to patients < 65-year-old, but not under increased risk of death.
Keywords: Myocardial revascularization. Elderly. Hospital mortality. Postoperative complications.
Mauricio de Nassau Machado; Marcelo Arruda Nakazone; Jamil Ali Murad-Júnior; Lilia Nigro Maia
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):29-35Abstract PDF EN EMC
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patients underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis in an attempt to identify independent predictors of 30-day mortality.
METHODS: We evaluated 837 consecutive patients underwent cardiac valve surgery from January 2003 to May 2010 in a tertiary hospital in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The study group comprised patients who underwent intervention in the presence of infective endocarditis and was compared to the control group (without infective endocarditis), evaluating perioperative clinical outcomes and 30-day all cause mortality.
RESULTS: In our series, 64 patients (8%) underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis, and 37.5% of them had surgical intervention in multiple valves. The study group had prolonged ICU length of stay (16%), greater need for dialysis (9%) and higher 30-day mortality (17%) compared to the control group (7%, P=0.020; 2%, P=0.002 and 9%, P=0.038; respectively). In a Cox regression analysis, age (P = 0.007), acute kidney injury (P = 0.004), dialysis (P = 0.026), redo surgery (P = 0.026), re-exploration for bleeding (P = 0.013), tracheal reintubation (P <0.001) and type I neurological injury (P <0.001) were identified as independent predictors for death. Although the manifestation of infective endocarditis influenced on mortality in univariate analysis, multivariate Cox regression analysis did not confirm such variable as an independent predictor of death.
CONCLUSION: Age and perioperative complications stand out as predictors of hospital mortality in Brazilian population. Cardiac valve surgery in the presence of active infective endocarditis was not confirmed itself as an independent predictor of 30-day mortality.
Keywords: Bacterial endocarditis. Cardiac surgical procedures. Hospital mortality.
Francisco Gregori Júnior; Moacir Fernandes de Godoy; Celso Otaviano Cordeiro; Alexandre Noboru Murakami; Rogerio Teruya; Sergio Shigueru Hayashi; Wallace Kohata de Aquino; Luiz Eduardo Gallina
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):36-46Abstract PDF EN PDF PT EMC
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinically and by Doppler Echocardiography 22 patients submitted to mitral valve repair after valvular regurgitation using standardized bovine pericardium chordae.
METHODS: The patients had degenerative mitral regurgitation. Fourteen (63.6%) patients were male and the age ranged from 19 to 76 years (mean 56.8 ± 13.8 years). The strings of bovine pericardium treated with glutaraldehyde were reinforced in its transverse ends forming a trapezoid.
RESULTS: One patient (4.5%) died in the immediate postoperative period with in low cardiac output syndrome and three (13.6%) in the late postoperative period. One patient (4.5%) was reoperated. The actuarial curves for survival free of death from cardiovascular causes and free from reoperation for patients who left the hospital (21), showed rates of 82.0 ± 9.8% and 83.9 ± 10.4% at 70 months postoperatively, respectively. Seventeen patients (77.3%) are alive with native valves. Of the 17 patients alive with native valves 16 (94.1%) were in functional class I. The Doppler Echocardiography postoperatively (mean 41 months, 4-70 months), showed no mitral regurgitation in 11 (64.7%) patients and mild regurgitation in five (29.4%).
CONCLUSION: The technique of standard cords of bovine pericardium implantation to replace chordae tendineae of the mitral valve in patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation showed satisfactory results.
Keywords: Mitral valve insufficiency. Papillary muscles. Chordae Tendineae. Pericardium.
Juliana Bassalobre Carvalho Borges; Rubens Tofano de Barros; Sebastião Marcos Ribeiro de Carvalho; Marcos Augusto de Moraes Silva
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):47-53Abstract PDF EN PDF PT
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether there is a correlation between quality of life and functional class in early heart pacemaker in patients, and its relationship with age.
METHODS: 107 patients of both sexes (49.5% female/50.5% male) were investigated, average implant time of 6.36 months (±2.99), and average age of 69.3 years (±12.6). To assess the FC, a scale suggested by Goldman was used; for QoL the AQUAREL questionnaire was used, associated with SF-36. Statistical analysis was conducted using Spearman's correlation with 5% significance.
RESULTS: Negative correlations were observed between QoL and FC: AQUAREL in the three domains, chest discomfort (r=-0.197, P=0.042), dyspnea (r=-0.508, P=0.000), arrhythmia (r=-0.271, P=0.005), and the SF-36 in the eight domains. Regarding age, there was a negative correlation with the SF36 Functional Capacity (r=-0.338, P=0.000) and no correlation was found with AQUAREL. Positive correlation (r=0.237, P=0.014) was observed between age and FC.
CONCLUSION: In this study we found a significant negative correlation between QoL and FC, indicating that patients in this sample who belong to a better FC demonstrated better QoL. The older the patient, QoL is worse in functional capacity and FC. It is suggested that age and FC influence QoL, and the functional classification scales may be established as one of the assessment tools and reflect QoL in patients with pacemakers.
Keywords: Quality of life. Pacemaker, artificial. Indicators of quality of life.
Yong Cao; Lie Wang; Hong Chen; Zhiqian Lv
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):54-60Abstract PDF EN
OBJECTIVE: A simple method to reduce the ischemia/ reperfusion injury that can accompany cardiac surgery would have great clinical value. This study was to investigate the effect of hyperosmotic perfusion on ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated perfused rat hearts.
METHOD: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided either to have their isolated hearts perfused with normal osmotic buffer or buffer made hyperosmotic by addition of glucose. Hearts were then subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 30 min reperfusion. Coronary flow, time to ischemic arrest, reperfusion arrhythmia, and ventricular function were recorded. Creatine phosphokinase leakage into the coronary artery, and myocardial content and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were also examined.
RESULTS: Rat hearts with hyperosmotic perfusion showed higher coronary flow, a prolonged time to ischemic arrest (10.60 vs. 5.63 min, P<0.005), a lower reperfusion arrthythmia score (3.2 vs. 5.3, P<0.001), better ventricular function, and less creatine phosphokinase leakage (340.1 vs. 861.9, P<0.001) than normal osmotic controls. Myocardial catalase content and activity were increased significantly (1435 vs. 917 U/g wet weight, P<0.001) in hearts perfused with hyperosmotic solution in comparison to the normal osmotic controls.
CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with hyperosmotic perfusion in normal rat hearts, which is attributed partly to the increased antioxidative activity, could provide beneficial effects from ischemia and reperfusion-induced injury by increasing coronary flow, and decreasing reperfusion arrhythmia.
Keywords: Ischemia. Reperfusion injury.. Myocardial infarction.
Paula Moraes Pfeifer; Patricia Pereira Ruschel; Solange Bordignon
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):61-68Abstract PDF EN
OBJECTIVES: To investigate coping strategies used by patients submitted to heart transplantation and whether they are related to the perception of the disease and transplantation.
METHODS: Cross-sectional study with quantitative and qualitative analysis. The sample of 32 patients was assessed by the Ways of Coping Scale and socio-demographic questionnaire, and five of them were selected for interviews. The internal consistency of the scale was assessed, the variables and strategies involved were crossed and content analysis of interviews, investigating the existence of a relationship with the speech of the participants.
RESULTS: The individuals have used all coping styles, with a predominance of the problem-focused strategy. Psychologically prepared patients showed a statistically significant increase in the use of problem-focused coping and seek for social support. However, a significant increase in the use of emotion-focused coping was observed in patients who were not prepared. Analysis through the method of Bardin showed as categories: disease; reaction to call; transplantation; fantasies; postoperative; team and coping.
CONCLUSION: Patients with a transplanted heart make use of all coping strategies, with a predominance of the problem-focused strategy. Psychologically prepared individuals used more active coping strategies, which highlights the importance of psychological support during the process.
Keywords: Heart transplantation. Adaptation, psychological. Sickness impact profile.
Ricardo Adala Benfatti; Felipe Matsushita Manzano; José Carlos Dorsa Vieira Pontes; Amaury Edgardo Mont'serrat Ávila Souza Dias; João Jackson Duarte; Guilherme Viotto Rodrigues da Silva; Jandir Ferreira Gomes Júnior; Neimar Gardenal
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):69-75Abstract PDF EN
BACKGROUND: The gold standard surgical treatment for heart failure is cardiac transplantation, however, due to difficulties of this treatment, other surgical proposals have been reported, including the implantation of cardiac resynchronizer.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the left ventricular function by echocardiography in patients with advanced heart failure with interventricular dyssynchrony undergone implantation of cardiac resynchronizer.
METHODS: Between June 2006 and June 2012, 24 patients with average age of 61.5 ± 11 years were evaluated, carriers of advanced congestive heart failure functional class III and IV (NYHA), interventricular dyssynchrony and optimal drug therapy, and submitted implantation of cardiac resynchronizer and postoperative echocardiographically evaluated in six months.
RESULTS: There was significant improvement of the analyzed echocardiography parameters. The average left ventricular diastolic diameter decreased from 69.6 ± 9.8 mm to 66.8 ± 8.8 mm, systolic diameters from 58.6 ± 8.8 mm to 52.7 ± 8.8 mm, and ejection fraction, average of 31 ± 8% to 40 ± 7% with level of significance, respectively, of 0.019, 0.0004 and 0.0002, statistically significant with a significance level of 0.05.
CONCLUSION: There was a significant improvement of left ventricular function analyzed by echocardiography at six months, in patients with advanced heart failure undergone implantation of cardiac resynchronizer.
Keywords: Heart failure. Cardiac resynchronization therapy. Echocardiography.
Rui M. S Almeida; Luciano Leitão
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):76-82Abstract PDF EN PDF PT
INTRODUCTION: The use of cell saver (CS) in cardiac surgery is proposed to reduce the use of units of packed red blood cells stored (URBC), which increases morbidity, mortality and causes inflammatory reactions.
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate whether the use of CS decreases the use URBC, is cost / effective and beneficial to the patient.
METHODS: In a prospective study, between November 2009 and October 2011, 100 consecutive patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery with CPB, hemodilution and hemofiltration, were enrolled. Patients were divided into group 1 (no CS) and 2 (CS). The criteria for the replacement of RBC were hemodynamic instability and hemoglobin (Hb) <7-8g/dl. Demographic data, as well as Hb and hematocrit, mediastinal drainage, number of URBC and CPB, ICU and hospital time, were analysed.
RESULTS: In groups 1 and 2 the average age was 64.1 and 60.6 years; predominantly male; the logistic EuroSCORE 10.3 and 9.4; mortality 2% and 4%. Group 2 had a higher incidence of reoperations (12% versus 6%), but the average of URBC used (4.31 versus 1.25) and mean length of hospital stay (10.8 versus 7.4 days) was lower. Univariate and multivariate analysis, were performed, which showed no statistically significant values, except in the use of URBC. The relationship between the CS and the cost of RBC was not cost / effective and length of stay was shorter.
CONCLUSION: The use of CS decreases the number of used URBC, is not cost / effective but has shown benefits for patients.
Keywords: Operative blood salvage. Blood component transfusion. Cell separation.
Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira Sá; Paulo Ernando Ferraz; Rodrigo Renda Escobar; Eliobas de Oliveira Nunes; Alexandre Magno Macário Nunes Soares; Frederico Browne Correia de Araújo e Sá; Frederico Pires Vasconcelos; Ricardo Carvalho Lima
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):83-92Abstract PDF EN EMC
OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy at long-term follow-up of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease.
METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for clinical studies that reported outcomes at 5-year follow-up after PCI with DES and CABG for the treatment of ULMCA stenosis. Five studies (1 randomized controlled trial and 4 observational studies) were identified and included a total of 2914 patients (1300 for CABG and 1614 for PCI with DES).
RESULTS: At 5-year follow-up, there was no significant difference between the CABG and PCI-DES groups in the risk for death (odds ratio [OR] 1.159, P=0.168 for random effect) or the composite endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (OR 1.214, P=0.083). The risk for target vessel revascularization (TVR) was significantly lower in the CABG group compared to the PCI-DES group (OR 0.212, P<0.001). The risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) was significantly lower in the CABG group compared to the PCI-DES group (OR 0.526, P<0.001). It was observed no publication bias about outcomes and considerably heterogeneity effect about MACCE.
CONCLUSION: CABG surgery remains the best option of treatment for patients with ULMCA disease, with less need of TVR and MACCE rates at long-term follow-up.
Keywords: Meta-analysis. Myocardial revascularization. Drug-eluting stents. Stents farmacológicos.
Ítalo Martins de Oliveira; Vera Demarchi Aiello; Marcela Maria Aguiar Mindêllo; Yasmin de Oliveira Martins; Valdester Cavalcante Pinto Jr
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):93-102Abstract PDF EN
Criss-cross heart is an extremely rare anomaly, characterized by an abnormal rotation of the ventricular mass along its major axis. It may be associated with any malformation of the heart segments and connections. Due to the complex structural changes and rarity of the anomaly, the rotation of ventricular axis is often misdiagnosed. In this paper, two cases of criss-cross heart are reported, with emphasis on diagnostic and surgical techniques used to corrected the main defects. A literature review on the subject is also presented which, although sparse, emphasized on the morphologic, diagnostic and surgical aspects of the anomaly.
Keywords: Congenital abnormalities. Cardiac surgical procedures. Crisscross heart.
Fernando A. Lucchese; Harold G. Koenig
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):103-128Abstract PDF EN
In this paper we comprehensively review published quantitative research on the relationship between religion, spirituality (R/S), and cardiovascular (CV) disease, discuss mechanisms that help explain the associations reported, examine the clinical implications of those findings, and explore future research needed in Brazil on this topic. First, we define the terms religion, spirituality, and secular humanism. Next, we review research examining the relationships between R/S and CV risk factors (smoking, alcohol/drug use, physical inactivity, poor diet, cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, blood pressure, and psychosocial stress). We then review research on R/S, cardiovascular functions (CV reactivity, heart rate variability, etc.), and inflammatory markers (IL-6, IFN-γ, CRP, fibrinogen, IL-4, IL-10). Next we examine research on R/S and coronary artery disease, hypertension, stroke, dementia, cardiac surgery outcomes, and mortality (CV mortality in particular). We then discuss mechanisms that help explain these relationships (focusing on psychological, social, and behavioral pathways) and present a theoretical causal model based on a Western religious perspective. Next we discuss the clinical applications of the research, and make practical suggestions on how cardiologists and cardiac surgeons can sensitively and sensibly address spiritual issues in clinical practice. Finally, we explore opportunities for future research. No research on R/S and cardiovascular disease has yet been published from Brazil, despite the tremendous interest and involvement of the population in R/S, making this an area of almost unlimited possibilities for researchers in Brazil.
Keywords: Religion. Spirituality. Cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac surgical procedures. Research. Mortality.
Rodolfo A. Neirotti
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):129-136PDF EN
Luís Alberto Oliveira Dallan; Fábio Biscegli Jatene
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):137-144PDF EN PDF PT
José Carlos Dorsa Vieira Pontes; Amaury Mont’Serrat Ávila Souza Dias; João Jackson Duarte; Ricardo Adala Benfatti; Neimar Gardenal
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):145-147Abstract PDF EN PDF PT
Woman, 84 years-old, with Stanford type A thoracic aortic dissection committing aortic arch and descending aorta. Proposed and accepted endovascular treatment according to the severity of the clinical picture. Common femoral artery dissection bilaterally was done. Aortography confirmed the exclusion of the false lumen and patency of the coronary ostia.
Keywords: Aneurysm, dissecting. Endovascular procedures. Stents.
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):148-149PDF EN PDF PT
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2013;28(1):156-156PDF PT PDF EN