RBCCV FacebookTwitterBlogBrazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular

ISSN (On-line): 1678-9741 Impact Factor: 0.809
Advanced Search

Volume 24 Number 2 Suppl. 1, 2009

GUIDELINES OF THE AORTA

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-76382009000300004

Guidelines for surgery of aortic diseases from the Brazilian Society of Cardiovascular Surgery - Updated in 2009

Diretrizes para o tratamento cirúrgico das doenças da aorta da Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular: atualização 2009

Luciano Cabral AlbuquerqueI; Domingo M BraileII; José Honório PalmaIII; Eduardo Keller SaadiIV; Rui Manuel Sequeira de AlmeidaV; Walter José GomesVI; Enio BuffoloVII

Correspondence To:
Luciano Cabral Albuquerque
Centro Clínico do Hospital da PUCRS
Av. Ipiranga 6690, conj. 615
Porto Alegre, RS. CEP 90610-000
Fone/Fax: (51)-3336-8190
E-mail: alb.23@terra.com.br

Keywords Aneurysm, dissecting, surgery. Aorta, surgery. Aorta, thoracic, surgery. Aortic aneurysm, surgery. Aortic rupture, surgery. Practice guideline [publication type].

Palavras-Chave Aneurisma dissecante, cirurgia. Aorta, cirurgia. Aorta torácica, cirurgia. Aneurisma aórtico, cirurgia. Ruptura aórtica, cirurgia. Guia de prática médica [tipo de publicação].

Full text available only in portuguese PDF format.

REFERENCES

1. Albuquerque LA, Braile DM, Palma JH, Saadi EK, Gomes WJ, Buffolo E.Diretrizes para o tratamento cirúrgico das doenças da aorta da Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2007;22(2):137-59. [MedLine] [See article]

2. Daily PO, Tueblood HW, Stinson EB, Wuerflein RD, Schumway NE. Management of acute aortic dissections. Ann Thorac Surg. 1970;10(3):237-47. [MedLine]

3. Wolfe WG, Moran JF. The evolution of medical and surgical management of acute aortic dissection. Circulation. 1997;56(4 pt 1):503-5.

4. Jamieson WR, Munro Al, Miyagishima RT, Allen P, Tyers FG, Gerein An. Aortic dissection: early diagnosis and surgical management are the keys to survival. Can J Surg. 1982;25(2):145-9. [MedLine]

5. Svensson LG, Crawford ES, Hess KR, Coselli JS, Safi HJ. Dissection of the aorta and dissecting aortic aneurysms: improving early and long-term surgical results. Circulation. 1990;82(5 suppl):IV24-38. [MedLine]

6. Pretre R, Von Segsser LK. Aortic dissection. Lancet. 1997;349(9063):1461-4. [MedLine]

7. Borst HG, Lass J, Haverich A. A new look at acute type-A dissection of the aorta. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1987;1(3):186-9. [MedLine]

8. Miller DC. Surgical Management of acute aortic dissection: new data. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1991.3(3):225-37. [MedLine]

9. Culliford AT, Ayvaliotis B, Schemin R, Colvin SB, Isom OW, Spencer FC. Aneurysms of the ascending aorta and transverse arch: surgical experienced in 80 patients. J Thorac Cardiovas Surg. 1982;83(5):701-10.

10. Fraser Jr CD, Wang N, Mee RB, Lytle BW, McCarthy PM, Sapp SK, et al. Repair of insufficient bicuspid aortic valves. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;58(2):386-90. [MedLine]

11. Gott VL, Cameron DE, Pyeritz RE, Gillinov AM, Greene PS, Stone CD, et al. Composite graft repair of Marfan aneurysm of the ascending aorta: results in 150 patients. J Card Surg. 1994;9(5):428-9.

12. Sarsam MA, Yacoub M. Remodeling of the aortic valve annulus. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1993;105(3):435-8. [MedLine]

13. Bental H, De Bono A. A technique for complete replacement of the ascending aorta. Thorax. 1968:23(4):338-9. [MedLine]

14. Kouchoukos NT, Karp RB, Blackstone EH, Kirklin JW, Pacifico AD, Zorn GL. Replacement of the ascending aorta and aortic valve whit a composite graft. Results in 86 patients. Ann Surg. 1980;192(3):403-13. [MedLine]

15. Kouchoukos NT, Marshall WG JR. Wedige-Stecher TA. Eleven-year experience with composite graft replacement o the ascending aorta and aortic valve. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1986;92(4):691-705. [MedLine]

16. Kouchoukos NT, Wareing TH, Murphy SF, Perrillo JB. Sixteen-year experience with aortic root replacement. Results in 182 operations. Ann Surg 1991;214(3):318-20.

17. Ergin MA, Spielvogel D, Apaydin A, Lansman SL, McCullough JN, Galla JD, et al. Surgical treatment of the dilated ascending aorta: when and how? Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;67(6):1853-6.

18. Cabrol C, Pavie A, Mesnildrey P, Gandjbakhch I, Laughlin L, Bors V, et al. Long-term results with total replacement of the ascending aorta and reimplantation of the coronary arteries. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1986;91(1):17-25. [MedLine]

19. Etz CD, Homann TM, Rane N, Bodian CA, Di Luozzo G, Plestis KA, et al. Aortic root reconstruction with a bioprosthetic valved conduit: a consecutive series of 275 procedures. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007;133(6):1455-63. [MedLine]

20. Tabata M, Takayama H, Bowdish ME, Smith CR, Stewart AS. Modified Bentall operation with bioprosthetic valved conduit: Columbia University experience. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;87(6):1969-70. [MedLine]

21. Kouchoukos NT, Davila-Roman VG, Spray TL, Murphy SF, Perrillo JB, et al. Replacement of the aortic root whit a pulmonary autograft in children and young adults with aortic valve disease. N Engl J Med. 1994;330(1):1-6. [MedLine]

22. Chambers JC, Somerville J, Stone S, Ross DN. Pulmonary autograft procedure for aortic valve disease. Circulation. 1997;96(7):2206-14. [MedLine]

23. Oury JH, Hiro SP, Maxwell JM, Lamberti JJ, Duran CMG. The Ross Procedure: current registry results. Ann Thorac Surg. 1998;66(6 suppl):S162-5. [MedLine]

24. Doty JR, Salazar JD, Liddicoat JR, Flores JH, Doty DB. Aortic valve replacement with cryopreserved aortic allograft: ten-year experience. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1998;115(2):379-80.

25. Kouchoukos NT. Aortic allografts and pulmonary autografts for replacement of the aortic valve and aortic root. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;67(6):1846-8.

26. Erbel R, Alfonso F, Boileau C, Dirsch O, Eber B, Haverich A, et al. Diagnosis and management of aortic dissection. Eur Heart J. 2001;22(18):1642-81. [MedLine]

27. David TE, Feindel CM. An aortic valve-sparing operation for patients with aortic incompetence and aneurysm of the ascending aorta. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992;103(4):617-22.

28. Bachet J, Gigou F, Laurian C, Bical O, Goudot B, Guilmet D. Four-year clinical experience with the gelatin-resorcineformol biological glue in acute aortic dissection.J Thorac Cardiovasc 1982;83(2):212-7.

29. Elefteriades JA. How I do it: utilization of high-pressure sealants in aortic reconstruction. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2009;4(1):27.

30. Najafi H, Dye S, Javid H, Hunter JA, Goldin MD, Julian OC. Acute aortic regurgitation secondary to aortic dissection. Surgical management without valve replacement. Ann Thorac Surg. 1972;14(5):474-82. [MedLine]

31. Crawford ES, Svensson LG, Coselli JS, Safi HJ, Hess KR. Surgical treatment of aneurysm and/or dissection of the ascending aorta, transverse aortic arch, and ascending aorta and transverse aortic arch. Factors influencing survival in 717 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1989;98(5 pt 1):659-73.

32. Galloway AC, Colvin SB, Grossi EA, Parish MA, Culliford AT, Asai T, et al. Surgical repair of type A aortic dissection by the circulatory arrest-graft inclusion technique in sixty-six patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1993;105(5):781-90.

33. Hagan PG, Nienaber CA, Isselbahcher EM, Bruckman D, Karavite DJ, Russman PL, et al. The International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD). JAMA. 2000;283(7):897-903. [MedLine]

34. Tsai TT, Trimarchi S, Nienaber CA. Acute aortic dissection: perspectives from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD). Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009;37(2):149-59. [MedLine]

35. Ergin MA, O'Connor J, Guinto R, Griepp RB. Experience with profound hypothermia and circulatory arrest in the treatment of aneurysms of the aortic arch. Aortic arch replacement for acute aortic arch dissections. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1982;84(5):649-55. [MedLine]

36. Heinemann M, Laas J, Jurmann M, Karch M, Borst HG. Surgery extended into the aortic arch in acute type A dissection: indications, techniques and results. Circulation. 1991;84(5 suppl):III25-30. [MedLine]

37. Cooley DA. Aortic aneurysm operations: past, present, and future. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;67(6):1959-62.

38. Crawford ES, Kirklin JW, Naftel DC, Svensson LG, Coselli JS, Safi HJ, et al. Surgery for acute dissection of ascending aorta: should the arch be included? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992;104(1):46-59. [MedLine]

39. Borst HG, Buhner B, Jurmann M. Tactics and techniques of aortic arch replacement. J Car Surg. 1994;9(5):538-47.

40. Yun KL, Glower DD, Miller DC, Fan JI, Mitchell RS, White WD, et al. Aortic dissection resulting from tear of transverse arch: Is concomitant arch repair warranted? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1991;102(3):355-70.

41. Moon MR, Miller C. Aortic arch replacement for dissection. In: Operative techniques in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery; 1999;4(1):33-57.

42. Livesay JJ, Cooley DA, Reul GJ, Walker WE, Frazier OH, Duncan JM, et al. Resection of aortic arch aneurysms: a comparison of hypothermic techniques in 60 patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 1983;36(1):19-28. [MedLine]

43. Griepp RB, Ergin MA, McCullough JN, Nguyen KH, Juvonen T, Chang N, et al. Use of hypothermic circulatory arrest for cerebral protection during aortic surgery. J Card Surg. 1997;12(2 suppl):312-21. [MedLine]

44. Haverich A, Miller DC, Scott WC, Mitchell RS, Dyer PE, Stinson EB. Acute and chronic aortic dissections: determinants of long-term outcome for operative survivors. Circulation. 1985;72(3pt2):II22-34. [MedLine]

45. Okita Y, Takamoto S, Ando M, Morota T, Matsukawa R, Kawashima Y, et al. Mortality and cerebral outcome in patients who underwent aortic arch operations using deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion: no relation of early death, stroke, and delirium to the duration of circulatory arrest. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1998;115(1):129-38. [MedLine]

46. Borst HG, Walterbusch G, Schaps D. Extensive aortic replacement using "elephant trunk" prosthesis. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1983;31(1):37-40. [MedLine]

47. Borst HG, Frank F, Schaps D. Treatment of extensive aortic aneurysms by a new multiple-stage approach. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1988;95(1):11-3. [MedLine]

48. Palma JH, Carvalho AC, Buffolo E, Almeida DR, Gomes WJ, Brasil LA. Endoscopic placement of stents in aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta. Ann Thorac Surg. 1998;66(1):256-8. [MedLine]

49. Griepp RB, Stinson EB, Hollingsworth JF, Buehler D. Prosthetic replacement of the aortic arch. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1975;70(6):1051-63. [MedLine]

50. Galloway AC, Colvin SB, LaMendola CL, Hurwitz JB, Baumann FG, Harris LJ, et al. Ten-year operative experience with 165 aneurysms of the ascending aorta and aortic arch. Circulation. 1989;80(3pt1):249-56.

51. Ergin MA, Galla JD, Lansman L, Quintana C, Bodian C, Griepp RB. Hypothermic circulatory arrest in operations on the thoracic aorta. Determinants of operative mortality and neurologic outcome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1994;107(3):788-99.

52. Svensson LG, Crawford ES, Hess KR, Coselli JS, Raskins S, Shenag SA, et al. Deep hypothermia with circulatory arrest: determinants of stroke and early mortality in 656 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1993;106(1):19-31.

53. McCullough JN, Galla JD, Ergin A, Griepp RB. Central nervous system monitoring during operations on the thoracic aorta. In: Operative techniques in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 1999;4(1):87-96

54. Ueda Y, Miki S, Kushuhara K, Okita Y, Tahata T, Yamanaka K, et al. Surgical treatment of aneurysm or dissection involving the ascending aorta and aortic arch, utilizing circulatory arrest and retrograde cerebral perfusion. J Cardiovasc Surg. 1990;31(5):553-8.

55. Dresser LP, McKinney WM. Anatomic and pathophysiologic studies of the human internal jugular valve. Am J Surg. 1987;154(2):220-4. [MedLine]

56. Ye J, Yang J, Del Bigio MR, Filgueira CL, Ede M, Summers R, et al. Neuronal damage after hypothermic circulatory arrest and retrograde cerebral perfusion in the pig. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996;61(5):1316-22. [MedLine]

57. Sakurada T, Kazui T, Tanaka H, Komatsu S. Comparative experimental study of cerebral protection during aortic arch reconstruction. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996;61(5):1348-54. [MedLine]

58. Coselli JS. Retrograde cerebral perfusion. Is it valuable adjunct during circulatory arrest? In: Kawashima U, Takamoto S, eds. Brain protection in aortic surgery. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1997.p.167-81.

59. Safi HJ, Letsou GV, Lliopoulous DC, Subramaniam MH, Miller CC 3rd, Hasson H, et al. Impact of retrograde cerebral perfusion on ascending aortic and arch aneurysm repair.Ann Thorac Surg. 1997;63(6):1601-7. [MedLine]

60. Guilmet D, Roux PM, Bachet J, Goudot B, Tawil N, Diaz F. Nouvelle technique de protection cérébrale: chirurgie de la crosse aortique. Presse Med. 1986;15(23):1096-8. [MedLine]

61. Bachet J, Guilmet D, Goudot B, Dreyfus GD, Delentdecker P, Brodaty D, et al. Anterograde cerebral perfusion with cold blood: a 13-year experience. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;67(6):1874-8.

62. Souza JM, Rojas SO, Berlinck MF, Mazzieri R, Oliveira PAF, Martins JRM, et al. Circulação extracorpórea pela artéria carótida comum direita na correção de doenças da aorta ascendente, arco aórtico e aorta descendente. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2003;18(2):137-41. [See article]

63. Swain JA, McDonald Jr TJ, Griffith PK, Balaban RS, Clark RE, Ceckler T, et al. Low-flow hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass protects the brain. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1991;102(1):76-84.

64. Sabik JF, Lytle BW, McCarthy PM, Cosgrove DM. Axillary artery: an alternative site of arterial cannulation for patients with extensive aortic and peripheral vascular disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1995;109(5):885-91

65. Van Arsdell GS, David TE, Butany J. Autopsies in acute type A aortic dissection: surgical implications. Circulation. 1998;98(19 suppl):II299-304.

66. Neri E, Massetti M, Capannini G, Carone E, Tucci E, Dicieolla F, et al. Axillary artery cannulation in type A aortic dissection operations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1999;118(2):324-9. [MedLine]

67. Whitlark JD, Goldman SM, Sutter FP. Axillary artery cannulation in acute ascending aortic dissections. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;69(4):1127-9.

68. Svensson LG, Blackstone EH, Rajeswaran J, Sabik JF, Lytle BW, Gonzalez-Stawinski G, et al. Does the arterial cannulation site for circulatory arrest influence stroke risk? Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78(4):1274-84.

69. Reuthebuch O, Schurr U, Hellermann J, Prêtre R, Künzli A, Lachat M, et al. Advantages of subclavian artery perfusion for repair of acute type A dissection. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2004;26(3):592-8. [MedLine]

70. Strauch JT, Spielvogel D, Lauten A, Lansman SL, McMurtry K, Bodian CA, et al. Axillary artery cannulation: routine use in ascending aorta and aortic arch replacement. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78(1):103-8.

71. Moizumi Y, Motoyoshi N, Sakuma K, Yoshida S. Axillary artery cannulation improves operative results for acute type A aortic dissection. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80(1):77-83. [MedLine]

72. Olsson C, Thelin S. Antegrade cerebral perfusion with a simplified technique: unilateral versus bilateral perfusion. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81(3):868-74. [MedLine]

73. Apostolakis E, Koletsis EN, Dedeilias P, Kokotsakis JN, Sakellaropoulos G, Psevdi A, et al. Antegrade versus retrograde cerebral perfusion in relation to postoperative complications following aortic arch surgery for acute aortic dissection type A. J Card Surg. 2008;23(5):480-7 [MedLine]

74. Khaladj N, Shrestha M, Meck S, Peterss S, Kamiya H, Kallenbach K, et al. Hypothermic circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion in ascending aortic and aortic arch surgery: a risk factor analysis for adverse outcome in 501 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008;135(4):908-14. [MedLine]

75. Yilik L, Emrecan B, Kestelli M, Ozsoyler I, Lafci B, Yakut N, et al. Direct versus side-graft cannulation of the right axillary artery for antegrade cerebral perfusion. Tex Heart Inst J. 2006;33(3):310-5 [MedLine]

76. Schachner T, Nagiller J, Zimmer A, Laufer G, Bonatti J. Technical problems and complications of axillary artery cannulation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2005;27(4):634-7 [MedLine]

77. Fusco DS, Shaw RK, Tranquilli M, Kopf GS, Elefteriades JA. Femoral cannulation is safe for type A dissection repair. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78(4):1285-9.

78. Lakew F, Pasek P, Zacher M, Diegeler A, Urbanski PP. Femoral versus aortic cannulation for surgery of chronic ascending aortic aneurysm. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80(1):84-9.

79. Melissano G, Civilini E, Bertoglio L, Calliari F, Setacci F, Calori G, et al. Results of endografting of the aortic arch in different landing zones. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2007;33(5):561-6. [MedLine]

80. Salch HM, Inglese L. Combined surgical and endovascular treatment of aortic arch aneurysms. J Vasc Surg. 2006;44(3):460-6.

81. Tsai TT, Fattori R, Trimarchi S, Isselbacher E, Myrmel T, Evangelista A, et al. Long-term survival in patients presenting with type B acute aortic dissection. Insights from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection. Circulation. 2006;114(21):2226-31. [MedLine]

82. Scheinin AS, Cooley DA. Graft replacement of the descending thoracic aorta: results of "open" distal anastomosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;58(1):19-23.

83. Read RA, Moore EE, Moore FA, Haenel JB. Partial left heart bypass for thoracic aorta repair: survival without paraplegia. Arch Surg. 1993;128(7):746-52.

84. Chiesa R, Melissano G, Ruettimann LM, Civilini E, Tshomba Y. Surgical treatment of thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms: technical notes and the use of left heart bypass. J Vasc Bras. 2002;1(3):207-18.

85. Laschinger JC, Izumoto H, Kouchoukos NT. Evolving concepts in prevention of spinal cord injury during operations on the descending thoracic and thoracoabodminal aorta. Ann Thorac Surg. 1987;44(6):667-74. [MedLine]

86. Kouchoukos NT, Daily BB, Rokkas CK, Murphy SF, Bauer S, Abbou DN, et al. Hypothermic bypass and circulatory arrest for operations on the descending thoracic and thoracoabodominal aorta. Ann Thorac Surg. 1995;60(1):67-77.

87. Palma JH, Almeida DR, Carvalho AC, Andrade JC, Buffolo E. Surgical treatment of acute type B aortic dissection using an endoprosthesis (elephant trunk). Ann Thorac Surg. 1997;63(4):1081-4. [MedLine]

88. Slonim SM, Nyman U, Semba CP, Miller DC, Mitchell RS, Dake MD. Aortic dissection: percutaneous management of ischemic complications with endovascular stents and balloon fenestration. J Vasc Surg. 1996;23(2):241-53.

89. Cambria RP, Brewster DC, Gertler J, Moncure AC, Gusberg R, Tilson MD, et al. Vascular complications associated with spontaneous aortic dissection. J Vasc Surg. 1988;7(2):199-209. [MedLine]

90. Laas J, Heinemann M, Schaefers HJ, Daniel W, Borst HG. Management of thoracoabdominal mal perfusion in aortic dissection. Circulation. 1991;84(5 suppl):III20-4. [MedLine]

91. Walker PJ, Miller DC. Aneurismal and ischaemic complications of type B (type III) aortic dissections. Semin Vasc Surg. 1992;5:198-214.

92. Elefteriades JA, Hartleroad J, Gusberg RJ, Salazar AM, Black HR, Kopf GS, et al. Long-term experience with descending aortic dissection: the complication-specific approach. Ann Thorac Surg. 1992;53(1):11-21.

93. Miller DC, Mitchell RS, Oyer PE, Stinson EB, Jamieson WS, Shumway NE. Independent determinants of operative mortality for patients with aortic dissection. Circulation. 1984;70(3pt 2):I153-64. [MedLine]

94. Williams DM, Brothers TE, Messina LM. Relief of mesenteric ischaemia in type III aortic dissection with percutaneous fenestration of the aortic septum. Radiology. 1990;174(2):450-2. [MedLine]

95. Cowling MG, Redwood D, Buckenham TM. Case report: critical lower limb ischaemia due to aortic dissection relieved by percutaneous transfemoral fenestration. Clin Radiol. 1995;50(9):654-7. [MedLine]

96. Faykus MH Jr, Hiette P, Koopot R. Percutaneous fenestration of a type I aortic dissection for relief of lower extremity ischemia. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 1992;15(3):183-5. [MedLine]

97. Trerotola SO. Use of a stone basket as a target during fenestration of aortic dissection. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 1996;7(5):687-90. [MedLine]

98. Kato N, Sakuma H, Takeda K, Hirano T, Nakagawa T. Relief of acute lower limb ischemia with percutaneous fenestration of intimal flap in a patient with type III aortic dissection - a case report. Angiology. 1993;44(9):755-9. [MedLine]

99. Saito S, Arai H, Kim K, Aoki N, Tsurugida M. Percutaneous fenestration of dissecting intima with a transseptal needle. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn. 1992;26:130-5. [MedLine]

100. Walker PJ, Dake MD, Mitchell RS, Miller DC. The use of endovascular techniques for the treatment of complications of aortic dissection. J Vasc Surg. 1993;18(6):1042-51. [MedLine]

101. Williams DM, Lee DY, Hamilton BH, Marx MV, Narasimham DL, Kazanjian SN, et al. The dissected aorta: percutaneous treatment of ischemic complications - principles and results. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 1997;8(4):605-65.

102. Lee DY, Williams DM, Abrams GD. The dissected aorta. Part II. Differentiation of the true from the false lumen with intravascular US. Radiology. 1997;203(1):32-6. [MedLine]

103. Moon MR, Michell RS, Dake MD, Zarins CK, Fann JI, Miller DC. Simultaneous abdominal aortic replacement and thoracic stent-graft placement for multilevel aortic disease. J Vasc Surg. 1997;25(2):332-40. [MedLine]

104. Elefteriades JA, Hammond GL, Gusberg RJ, Kopf GS, Baldwin JC. Fenestration revisited: a safe and effective procedure for descending aortic dissection. Arch Surg. 1990;125(6):786-90. [MedLine]

105. Shennan T. Dissecting aneurysm. Medical Research Council Special. Report Series, Nº 193. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office;1984.

106. Nienaber CA, Fattori R, Lund G, Dieckmann C, Wolf W, von Kodolitsch Y, Nicolas V,. et al. Nonsurgical reconstruction of thoracic aortic dissection by stent-graft placement. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(20):1539-45. [MedLine]

107. Dake MD, Miller DC, Mitchell RS, Semba CP, Moore KA, Sakai T. The 'first generation' of endovascular stent-grafs for patients with aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1998;116(5):689-704.

108. Grabenwöger M, Hutschala D, Ehrlich MP, Cartes-Zumelzu F, Thurnner S, Lammer J, et al. Thoracic aortic aneurysms: treatment with endovascular self-expandable stents grafs. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;69(2):441-5. [MedLine]

109. Fann JI, Miller DC. Endovascular treatment of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Surg Clin North Am. 1999;79(3):551-74. [MedLine]

110. Palma JH, Souza JAM, Alves CMR, Carvalho AC. Self-expandable aortic stent-grafts for treatment of descending aortic dissections. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73:1138-42.

111. Buffolo E, Fonseca JHP, Souza JAM, Alves CMR. Revolutionary treatment of anuerysms and dissections of descending aorta: the endovascular approach. Ann Thorac Surg 2002;74:S1815-7.

112. Trimarchi S, Nienaber CA, Rampoldi V, Myrmel T, Suzuki T, Bossone E, et al. Role and results of surgery in acute type B aortic dissection. Insights from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD). Circulation. 2006;114(1 Suppl):I-357-64.

113. Eggebrecht H, Nienaber CA, Neuhauser M, Baumgart D, Kische S, Schmermund A, et al. Endovascular stent-graft placement in aortic dissection:a meta-analysis. Eur Heart J. 2006;27(4):489-98. [MedLine]

114. Guthaner DF, Miller DC, Silverman JF, Stinson EB, Wexler L. Fate of the false lumen following surgical repair of aortic dissections: an angiographic study. Radiology. 1979;133(1):1-8. [MedLine]

115. Erbel R, Oelert H, Meyer J, Puth M, Mohr-Katoly S, Hausmann D, et al. Influence of medical and surgical therapy on aortic dissection evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography: implication for prognosis and therapy. Circulation. 1993;87(5):1604-15. [MedLine]

116. Di Cesare E, Di Renzi P, Pavone P, Marsili L, Castaldo F, Passariello R. Postsurgical follow-up of aortic dissections by MRI. Eur J Radiol. 1991;13(1):27-30. [MedLine]

117. Hara KM, Yamaguchi T, Wanibuchi Y, Kurokawa K. The role of medical treatment of distal type aortic dissection. Int J Cardiol. 1991;32(2):231-40. [MedLine]

118. Masani ND, Banning AP, Jones RA, Ruttley MS, Fraser AG. Follow-up of chronic thoracic aortic dissection: comparison of transesophageal echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Am Heart J. 1996;131(6):1156-63. [MedLine]

119.Ergin MA, Phillips RA, Galla JD, Lansman SL, Mendelson DS, Quinatana CS, et al. Significance of distal false lumen after type A dissection repair. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;57(4):820-5.

120. Neufang KF, Theissen P, Deider S, Sechtem U. Thoracic aorta dissection - the place of MRT and CT in the follow-up after prosthetic aortic replacement. Rofo. 1989;151(6):659-65. [MedLine]

121. Rizzo JA, Darr U, Fischer M, et al. Multimodality serial follow-up of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Int J Angiol. 1997;6:153-6.

122. DeBakey ME, McCollum CH, Crawford ES, Morris GC, Howell J, Noon GP, et al. Dissection and dissecting aneurysms of the aorta: twenty-year follow-up of five hundred twenty-seven patients treated surgically. Surgery. 1982;92(6):1118-34. [MedLine]

123. Miller DC, Mitchell RS, Oyer PE, Stinson EB, Jamieson SW, Shumway NE. Independent determinants of operative mortality for patients with aortic dissections. Circulation. 1984:70(3 PT 2):l153-64.

124. Glower DD, Speier RH, White WD, Smith LR, Rankin JS, Wolfe WG. Management and long term outcome of aortic dissection. Ann Surg. 1991;214(1):31-41. [MedLine]

125. Crawford ES, Coselli JS. Marfan's syndrome: combined composite valve graft replacement of the aortic root and transaortic mitral valve replacement. Ann Thorac Surg. 1988;45(3):296-302. [MedLine]

126. McDonald GR, Schaff HV, Pyeritz RE, McKusick VA, Gott VL. Surgical management of patients with the Marfan syndrome and dilatation of the ascending aorta. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1981;81(2):180-6. [MedLine]

127. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Genetics. Health supervision for children with Marfan syndrome. Pediatrics. 1996;98(5):978-82. [MedLine]

128. Taylor JFN. Clinical pediatric cardiology. Curr Opin Cardiol 1993;8:108-13.

129. Braverman AC. Exercise and the Marfan syndrome. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30(10 suppl):S387-95. [MedLine]

130. Alfonso F, Goicolea J, Aragoncillo P, Hernandez R, Macaya C. Diagnosis of aortic intramural hematoma by intravascular ultrasound imaging. Am J Cardiol. 1995;76(10):735-8. [MedLine]

131. Ide K, Uchida H, Otsuji H, Nishimine K, Tsushima J, Ohishi H, et al. Acute aortic dissection with intramural hematoma: possibility of transition to classic dissection or aneurysm. J Thorac Imaging. 1996;11(1):46-52. [MedLine]

132. Nienaber CA, von Kodolitsch Y, Petersen B, Loose R, Helmchen U, Haverich A, et al. Intramural hemorrhage of the thoracic aorta: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Circulation. 1995;92(6):1465-72. [MedLine]

133. Murray JG, Manisali M, Flamm SD, VanDyke CW, Lieber ML, Lytle BW, et al. Intramural hematoma of the thoracic aorta: MR image findings and their prognostic implications. Radiology. 1997;204(2):349-55. [MedLine]

134. Bolognesi R, Manca C, Tsialtas D, Vasini P, Zeppellini R, De Domenico R, et al. Aortic intramural hematoma: an increasingly recognized aortic disease. Cardiology. 1998;89(3):178-83. [MedLine]

135. Kaji S, Nishigami K, Akasaka T, Hozumi T, Takagi T, Kawamoto T, et al. Prediction of progression or regression of type A aortic intramural hematoma by computed tomography. Circulation. 1999;100(19suppl):II281-6. [MedLine]

136. Pepi M, Campodonico J, Galli C, Tamborini G, Barbier P, Doria E, et al. Rapid diagnosis and management of thoracic aortic dissection and intramural haematoma: a prospective study of advantages of multiplane vs. biplane transoesophageal echocardiography. Eur J Echocardiogr. 2000;1(1):72-9. [MedLine]

137. Vilacosta I, San Roman JA, Ferreiros J, Aragoncillo P, Mendez R, Castillo JA, et al. Natural history and serial morphology of aortic intramural hematoma: a novel variant of aortic dissection. Am Heart J. 1997;134(3):495-507. [MedLine]

138. Cooke JP, Kazmier FJ, Orszulak TA. The penetrating aortic ulcer: pathologic manifestations, diagnosis and management. Mayo Clin Proc. 1988;63(7):718-25. [MedLine]

139. Kazerooni EA, Bree RL, Williams DM. Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers of the descending thoracic aorta: evaluation with CT and distinction from aortic dissection. Radiology. 1992;183(3):759-65. [MedLine]

140. Coady MA, Rizzo JA, Hammond GL, Pierce JG, Kopf GS, Elefteriades JA. Penetrating ulcer of the thoracic aorta: what is it? How do we recognize it? How so we manage it? J Vasc Surg. 1998;27(6):1006-16.

141. Coady MA, Rizzo JA, Elefteriades JA. Pathologic variants of thoracic aortic dissections: penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers and intramural hematomas. Cardiol Clin. 1999;17(4):637-57. [MedLine]

142. Hussain S, Glover JL, Bree R, Bendick PJ. Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers of the thoracic aorta. J Vasc Surg. 1989;9(5):710-7. [MedLine]

143. Groenink M, Rozendaal L, Naeff MS, Hennekam RC, Hart AA, van der Wall EE, et al. Marfan syndrome in children and adolescent: predictive and prognostic value of aortic root growth for screening for aortic complications. Heart. 1998;80(2):163-9. [MedLine]

144. Gott VL, Greene PS, Alejo DE, Cameron DE, Naftel DC, Miller DC, et al. Replacement of the aortic root in patients with Marfan's syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(17):1307-13. [MedLine]

145. Finkbohner R, Johnston D, Crawford ES, Coselli J, Milewicz DM. Marfan syndrome. Long-term survival and complications after aortic aneurysm repair. Circulation. 1995;91(3):728-33. [MedLine]

146. Silverman DI, Burton KJ, Gray J, Bosner MS, Kouchoukos NT, Roman MJ, et al. Life expectancy in the Marfan syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 1995;75(2):157-60. [MedLine]

147. Legget ME, Unger TA, O'Sullivan CK, Zwink TR, Bennett RL, Byers PH, et al. Aortic root complications in Marfan's syndrome: identification of a lower risk group. Heart. 1996;75(4):389-95. [MedLine]

148. Davies RR, Goldstein LJ, Coady MA, Tittle SL, Rizzo JA, Kopf GS, et al. Yearly rupture or dissection rates for thoracic aortic aneurysms: simple prediction based on size. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73(1):17-28.

149. Carrel T, Von Segesser L, Jenni R, Gallino A, Egloff L, Bauer E, et al. Dealing with dilated ascending aorta during aortic valve replacement: advantages of conservative surgical approach. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1991;5(3):137-43. [MedLine]

150. Yun KL, Miller DC, Fann JI, Mitchell RS, Robbins RC, Moore KA, et al. Composite valve graft versus separate aortic valve and ascending aortic replacement: is there still a role for the separate procedure? Circulation. 1997;96(suppl.1):II368-75.

151. David TE. Current practice in Marfan's aortic root surgery: reconstruction with aortic valve preservation or replacement? What to do with the mitral valve? J Card Surg. 1997;12(suppl 2):147-50. [MedLine]

152. Coady MA, Rizzo JA, Hamond GL, Mandapati D, Darr U, Kopf GS, et al. What is the appropriate size criterion for resection of thoracic aortic aneurysms? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1997;113(3):476-91.

153. Hwa J, Richards JG, Huang H, McKay D, Pressley L, Hughes CF, et al. The natural history of aortic dilatation in Marfan syndrome. Med J Aust. 1993;158(8):558-62. [MedLine]

154. JJuvonen T, Ergin MA, Galla JD, Lansman SL, Nguyen KH, McCullough JN, et al. Prospective study of the natural history of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997;63(6):1533-45. [MedLine]

155. Griepp RB, Ergin MA, Galla JD, Lansman SL, McCullough JN, Nguyen KH, et al. Natural history of descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysms. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;67(6):1927-30.

156. Coady MA, Davies RR, Roberts M, Goldstein LJ, Rogalski MJ, Rizzo JA, et al. Familial patterns of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Arch Surg. 1999;134(4):361-7. [MedLine]

157. CCambria RO, Davison JK, Carter C, Brewster DC, Chang Y, Clark KA, et al. Epidural cooling of spinal cord protection during thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair: a five- year experience. J Vasc Surg. 2000;31(6):1093-102. [MedLine]

158. Coselli JS. Recent advances in surgical treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. In: Chiesa R, Melissano G, eds. Gli aneurismi dell'aorta addominale. Milano:Europa Scienze Umane Editrice; 1996.p.269-84.

159. Coselli JS. Recent advances in surgical treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. In: Chiesa R, Melissano G, editors. Gli aneurismi dell'aorta addominale. Milano: Europa Scienze Umane Editrice; 1996,269-84.

160. Acher CW, Wynn MM, Hoch JR, Popic P, Archibald J, Turnipseed WD. Combined use of cerebral spinal fluid drainage and naloxone reduces the risk of paraplegia in thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg. 1994;19(2):236-48.

161. Svensson LG, Crawford ES, Hess KR, Coselli JS, Safi HJ. Experience with 1509 patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aortic operations. J Vasc Surg. 1993;17(2):357-70.

162. Hollier LH, Money SR, Naslund TC, Proctor CD Sr, Buhrman WC, Marino RJ, et al. Risk of spinal cord dysfunction in patients undergoing thoracoabdominal a aortic replacements. Am J Surg. 1992;164(3):201-4.

163. Safi HJ, Campbell MP, Miller III CC, Iliopoulos DC, Khoynezhad A, Letsou GV, et al. Cerebral spinal fluid drainage and distal aortic perfusion decrease the incidence of neurological deficit: the results of 343 descending and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repairs. Eu J Vasc Endovasc Surg 1997;14(2):118-24.

164. Coselli JS, LeMaire SA. Left heart bypass reduces paraplegia rates after thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;67(6):1931-4.

165. Schepens MA, Defauw JJ, Hamerlijnck RP, Vermeulen FE. Use of left heart bypass in the surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. Ann Vasc Surg. 1995;9(4):327-38. [MedLine]

166. Svensson LG, Stewart RW, Cosgrove DM 3rd, Lytle BW, Antunes MD, Beven EG, et al. Intrathecal papaverine for the prevention of paraplegia after operation in the thoracic or thoracoabdominal aorta. J Thorac Cardiovas Surg. 1998(5);96:823-9.

167. Svensson LG, Crawford ES, Hess KR, Coselli JS, Safi HJ. Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms associated whit celiac, superior mesenteric, and renal artery occlusive disease: methods and analysis of results in 271 patients. J Vasc Surg. 1992;16(3):378-90.

168. Cooley DA, Golino A, Frazier OH. Single-clamp technique for aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta: report of 132 consecutive cases. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2000;18(2):162-7. [MedLine]

169. Crawford ES, Crawford JL, Safi HJ, Coselli JS, Hess KR, Brooks B, et al. Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms: preoperative and intraoperative factors determining immediate and long-term results of operation in 605 patients. J Vasc Surg. 1986;3(3):389-404. [MedLine]

170. Crawford ES, Coselli JS, Safi HJ. Partial cardiopulmonary bypass, hypothermic circulatory arrest, and posterolateral exposure for thoracic aortic aneurysm operation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1987;94(6):824-7. [MedLine]

171. Verdant A, Cossette R, Page A, Baillot R, Dontigny L, Page P.Aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta: three hundred sixty-six consecutive cases resected without paraplegia. J Vasc Surg. 1995;21(3):385-91.

172. Miyamoto K, Ueno A, Wada T, Kimoto S. A new and simple method of preventing spinal cord damage following temporary occlusion of the thoracic aorta by draining the cerebrospinal fluid. J Cardiovasc Surg. 1960;1:188-97.

173. Blaisdell FW, Cooley DA. The mechanism of paraplegia after temporary thoracic aortic occlusion and its relationship to spinal fluid pressure. Surgery. 1962;51:351-5. [MedLine]

174. Wadouh F, Lindemann EM, Arndt CF, Hetzer R, Borst HG. The arteria radicularis magna anterior as a decisive factor influencing spinal cord damage during aortic occlusion. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1984;88(1):1-10. [MedLine]

175. Svensson LG, Von Ritter CM, Groeneveld HT, Rickards ES, Hunter SJ, Robinson MF, et al. Cross-clamping of the thoracic aorta: Influence of aortic shunts, laminectomy, papaverine, calcium channel blockers, allopurinol, ad superoxide dismutase on spinal cord blood flow and paraplegia in baboons. Ann Surg. 1986;204(1):38-47.

176. Kazama S, Masaki Y, Maruyama S, Ishihara A. Effect of altering cerebrospinal fluid pressure on spinal cord blood flow. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;58(1):112-5. [MedLine]

177. Simpson JI, Eide TR, Schiff GA, Clagnaz JF, Hossain I, Tverskoy A et al. Intrathecal magnesium sulfate protects the spinal cord from ischemic injury during thoracic aortic cross-clamping. Anesthesiology. 1994;81(6):1493-9.

178. Follis F, Miller K, Scremin OU, Pett S, Kessler R, Wernly J. NMDA receptor blockade and spinal cord ischemia due to aortic cross clamping in the rat model. Can J Neurol Sci. 1994;21(3):227-32. [MedLine]

179. Murray MJ, Bower TC, Oliver Jr WC, Werner E, Gloviczki P. Effects of cerebrospinal fluid drainage in patients undergoing thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1993;7(3):266-72.. [MedLine]

180. Coselli JS, Lemaire SA, Köksoy C, Schmittling ZC, Curling PE. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage reduces paraplegia after thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair: results of a randomized clinical trial. J Vasc Surg. 2002;35(4):631-9. [MedLine]

181. Khan SN, Stansby G. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage for thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1):CD003635. [MedLine]

182. Safi HJ, Bartoli S, Hess KR, Shenaq SS, Viets JR, Butt GR, et al. Neurologic deficit in patients at high risk with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms: the role of cerebral spinal fluid drainage and distal aortic perfusion. J Vas Surg. 1994;20(3):434-44.

183. Svensson LG, Patel V, Robinson MF, Ueda T, Roehm JO Jr, Crawford ES. Influence of preservation or perfusion intraoperatively identified spinal cord blood supply on spinal motor evoked potentials and paraplegia after aortic surgery. J Vasc Surg. 1991;13(3):355-65.. [MedLine]

184. Svensson LG, Grum DF, Bednarski M, Cosgrove DM 3rd, Loop FD. Appraisal of cerebrospinal fluid alterations during aortic surgery with intrathecal papaverine administration and cerebrospinal fluid drainage. J Vasc Surg. 1990;11(3):423-9. [MedLine]

185. Mutch WA, Graham MR, Halliday WC, Thiessen DB, Girling LG. Use of neuroanesthesia adjuncts (hyperventilation and mannitol administration) improves neurological outcome after thoracic aortic cross-clamping in dogs. Stroke. 1993;24(8):1204-11.

186. Grabitz K, Freye E, Prior R, Schror K, Sandmann W. Does prostaglandin E1 and superoxide dismutase prevent ischaemic spinal cord injury after thoracic aortic cross-clamping? Eur J Vasc Surg 1990;4(1):19-24. [MedLine]

187. Svensson LG, Loop FD. Prevention of spinal cord ischemia in aortic surgery. In: Bergan JJ, Yao JST, eds. Arterial surgery: new diagnostic and operative techniques. New York:Grune & Stratton; 1988.p.273-85.

188. Johnson SH, Kraimer JM, Graeber GM. Effects of flunarizine on neurological recovery and spinal cord blood flow in experimental spinal cord ischemia in rabbits. Stroke. 1993;24(10):1547-53. [MedLine]

189. Svensson LG. New and future approaches for spinal cord protection. Semin Thorac Cardiovas Surg. 1997;9(3):206-21.

190. Crawford ES, Mizrahi EM, Hess KR, Coselli JS, Safi HJ, Patel VM. The impact of distal aortic perfusion and somatosensory evoked potential monitoring on prevention of paraplegia after aortic aneurysm operation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1988;95(3):357-67. [MedLine]

191. Svensson LG, Klepp P, Hinder RA. Spinal cord anatomy of the baboon: comparison with man and implications on spinal cord blood flow during thoracic aortic cross-clamping. S Afr J Surg. 1986;24(1):32-4. [MedLine]

192. Dommisse GF. The arteries and veins of the human spinal cord from birth. Edinburgh:Churchill Livingstone;1975.

193. Svensson LG, Hess KR, Coselli JS, Safi HR. Influence of segmental arteries, extent, and atriofemoral bypass on postoperative paraplegia after thoracoabdominal aortic operations. J Vasc Surg. 1994;20(1):255-62.

194. Williams GM. Treatment of chronic expanding dissecting aneurysms of the descending thoracic and upper abdominal aorta by extended aortotomy, removal of the dissected intima, and closure. J Vasc Surg. 1993;18(3):441-9.

195. Svensson LG. Intraoperative identification of spinal cord blood supply during repairs of descending aorta and thoracoabdominal aorta. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1996;112(6):1455-61.

196. Svensson LG, Rickards E, Coull A, Rogers G, Fimmel CJ, Hinder RA. Relationship of spinal cord blood flow to vascular anatomy during thoracic aortic cross-clamping and shunting. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1986;91(1):71-8. [MedLine]

197. Svensson LG, Crawford ES, Patel V, McLean TR, Jones JW, DeBakey ME. Spinal oxygenation, blood supply localization, cooling, and function with aortic clamping. Ann Thorac Surg. 1992;54(1):74-9. [MedLine]

198. Coselli JS, LeMaire SA, Buket S, Berzin E. Subsequent proximal aortic operations in 123 patients with previous infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. J Vasc Surg. 1995;22(1):59-67. [MedLine]

199. Osenbach RK, Hitchon PW, Mouw L, Yamada T. Effects of spinal cord ischemia on evoked potential recovery and postischemic regional spinal cord blood flow. J Spinal Disord. 1993;6(2):146-54. [MedLine]

200. Reuter DG, Tacker Jr WA, Badylak SF, Voorhees WD 3rd, Konrad PE. Correlation of motor-evoked potential response to ischemic spinal cord damage. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992;104(2):262-72. [MedLine]

201. Matsui Y, Goh K, Shiiya N, Murashita T, Miyama M, Ohba J, et al. Clinical application of evoked spinal cord potentials elicited by direct stimulation of the cord during temporary occlusion of the thoracic aorta. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1994;107(6):1519-27. [MedLine]

202. Dake MD, Miller DC, Semba CP, Mitchell RS, Walker PJ, Liddell RP. Transluminal placement of endovascular stent grafts for the treatment of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms. N Eng J Med. 1994;331(26):1729-34. descending thoracic aortic aneurysms. N Eng J Med 1994;331:1729-34.

203. Dake MD, Miller DG, Mitchell RS, Semba CP, Moore KA, Sakai T. The "first generation" of endovascular stent-grafts for patients with aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1998;116(5):689-704.

204. Bavaria JE, Appoo JJ, Makaroun MS, Verter J, Yu ZF, Mitchell RS. Endovascular stent grafting versus open surgical repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms in low-risk patients:a multicenter comparative trial. Gore TAG Investigators.J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007;133(2):369-77. [MedLine]

205. Fairman RM, Criado F, Farber M, Kwolek C, Mehta M, White R, et al. Pivotal results of the Medtronic Vascular Talent Thoracic Stent Graft System: the VALOR trial. J Vasc Surg. 2008;48(3):546-54. [MedLine]

206. Makaroun MS, Dillavou ED, Wheatley GH, Cambria RP; Gore TAG Investigators. Five-year results of endovascular treatment with the Gore TAG device compared with open repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms. J Vasc Surg. 2008;47(5):912-8.

207. Matsumura JS, Cambria RP, Dake MD, Moore RD, Svensson LG, Snyder S; TX2 Clinical Trial Investigators. International controlled clinical trial of thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair with the Zenith TX2 endovascular graft: 1-year results. J Vasc Surg. 2008;47(2):247-57.

208. Almeida RM, Leal JC, Saadi EK, Braile DM, Rocha AS, Volpiani G, et al. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair: a Brazilian experience in 255 patients over a period of 112 months. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2009;8(5):524-8. [MedLine]

209. Svensson LG, Kouchoukos NT, Miller DC, Bavaria JE, Coselli JS, Curi MA, et al; Society of Thoracic Surgeons Endovascular Surgery Task Force. Expert consensus document on the treatment of descending thoracic aortic disease using endovascular stent-grafts. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85(1 Suppl):S1-41. [MedLine]

210. Ferreira M, Lanziotti L, Monteiro M. Branched devices for thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair: early experience. J Vasc Surg. 2008;48(6 Suppl):30S-6S.

211. Mastracci TM, Greenberg RK. Complex aortic disease: changes in perception, evaluation and management. J Vasc Surg. 2008;48(6 Suppl):17S-23S. [MedLine]

212. Black SA, Wolfe JH, Clark M, Hamady M, Cheshire NJ, Jenkins MP. Complex thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms: endovascular exclusion with visceral revascularization. J Vasc Surg. 2006;43(6):1081-9.

213. Gregoric ID, Gupta K, Jacobs MJ, Poglajen G, Suvorov N, Dougherty KG, et al. Endovascular exclusion of a thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm after retrograde visceral artery revascularization. Tex Heart Inst J. 2005;32(3):416-20. [MedLine]

214. Quinones-Baldrich W, Jimenez JC, DeRubertis B, Moore WS. Combined endovascular and surgical approach (CESA) to thoracoabdominal aortic pathology: a 10-year experience. J Vasc Surg. 2009;49(5):1125-34. [MedLine]

215. Patel R, Conrad MF, Paruchuri V, Kwolek CJ, Chung TK, Cambria RP. Thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair: hybrid versus open repair. J Vasc Surg. 2009;50(1):15-22. [MedLine]

216. Saadi EK. É possível formar um cirurgião endovascular? Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2007;22(1):III-IV. [MedLine] [See article]

217. Leopold GR, Goldberger LE, Bernstein EF. Ultrasonic detection and evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Surgery. 1972;72(6):939-45. [MedLine]

218. Nehler MR, Taylor Jr LM, Moneta GL, Porter JM. Indications for operation for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms: current guidelines. Semin Vasc Surg. 1995;8(2):108-14. [MedLine]

219. Thurmond AS, Semler HJ. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: Incidence in a population at risk. J Cardiovasc Surg 1986;27(4):457-60.

220. MacSweeney ST, O'Meara M, Alexander C, O'Malley MK, Powell JT, Greenhalgh RM. High prevalence of unsuspected abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients with confirmed symptomatic peripheral or cerebral arterial disease. Br J Surg. 1993;80(5):582-4. [MedLine]

221. Taylor Jr LM, Porter JM. Basic data related to clinical decision-making in abdominal aortic aneurysms. Ann Vasc Surg. 1987;1(4):502-4. [MedLine]

222. Glimaker H, Holmberg L, Elvin A, Nybacka O, Almgren B, Bjorck CG, et al. Natural history of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. Eur J Vasc Surg. 1991;5(2):125-30. [MedLine]

223. Nevitt MP, Ballard DJ, Hallet Jr JW. Prognosis of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a population-based study. N Engl J Med. 1989;321(15):1009-14. [MedLine]

224. Hollier LH, Taylor LM, Ochsner J. Recommended indications for operative treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Report of a subcommittee of the Joint Council of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the North American Chapter of the International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery. J Vasc Surg. 1992;15(6):1046-56. [MedLine]

225. Cronenwett JL, Murphy TF, Zelenock GB, Whitehouse WM Jr, Lindenauer SM, Graham LM, et al. Actuarial analysis of variables associated with rupture of small abdominal aortic aneurysms. Surgery. 1985;98(3):472-83. [MedLine]

226. Hoffman M, Avellone JC, Plecha FR, Rhodes RS, Donovan DL, Beven EG, et al. Operations for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms: a community-wide experience. Surgery. 1982;91(5):597-602. [MedLine]

227. Perry MO, Calcagno D. Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery: the basic evaluation of cardiac risk. Ann Surg. 1988;208(6):738-42.. [MedLine]

228. Leather RP, Shah DM, Kaufman JL, Fitzgerald KM, Chang BB, Feustel PJ. Comparative analysis of retroperitoneal and transperitoneal aortic replacement for aneurysm. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1989;168(5):387-93. [MedLine]

229. Sicard GA, Allen BT, Munn JS, Anderson CB. Retroperitoneal versus transperitoneal approach for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Surg Clin North Am 1989;69(4):795-806. [MedLine]

230. Sullivan CA, Rohrer MJ, Cutler BS. Clinical management of the symptomatic but unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. J Vasc Surg. 1990;11(6):799-803. [MedLine]

231. AbuRahma AF, Robinson PA, Boland JP, Lucente FC, Stuart SP, Neuman SS, et al. Elective resection of 332 abdominal aortic aneurysms in a southern West Virginia community during a recent five-year period. Surgery. 1991:109(3 pt 1):244-51. [MedLine]

232. Hannan EL, O'Donnell JF, Kilburn H, Bernard HR, Yazici A. Investigation of the relationship between volume and mortality for surgical procedures performed in New York State hospitals. JAMA. 1989;262(4):503-10. [MedLine]

233. United Kingdom Small Aneurysm Trial Participants. Long-term outcomes of immediate repair compared with surveillance of small abdominal aortic aneurysms. N Eng J Med. 2002;346(19):1445-52.

234. Lederle FA, Wilson SE, Johnson GR, Reinke DB, Littooy FN, Acher CW, et al. Immediate repair compared with surveillance of small abdominal aortic aneurysms. N Eng J Med. 2002;346(19):1437-44.

235. Lederle FA, Johnson GR, Wilson SE, Ballard DJ, Jordan WD Jr, Blebea J, et al. Rupture rate of large abdominal aortic aneurysms in patients refusing or unfit for elective repair. JAMA. 2002;287(22):2968-72. [MedLine]

236. Parodi JC, Palmaz JC, Barone HD. Transfemoral intraluminal graft implantation for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Ann Vasc Surg. 1991;5(6):491-9. [MedLine]

237. Hallett Jr JW. Management of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Mayo Clin Proc. 2000;75(4):395-9. [MedLine]

238. Hallet Jr JW, Marshall DM, Petterson TM, Gray DT, Bower TC, Cherry Jr KJ, et al. Graft-related complications after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: reassurance from a 36year population-based experience. J Vasc Surg. 1997;25(2):277-86.

239. May J, Woodburn K, White G. Endovascular treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. Ann Vasc Surg. 1998;12(4):391-5.. [MedLine]

240. Saadi EK, Gastaldo F, Dussin LH, Zago AJ, Barbosa G, Moura L. Tratamento endovascular dos aneurismas de aorta abdominal: experiência inicial e resultados a curto e médio prazo. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2006;21(2):211-6. [See article]

241. Greenhalgh RM, Brown LC, Kwong GP, Powell JT, Thompson SG. The EVAR 1 participants. Comparison of endovascular aneurysm repair with open repair in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (EVAR trial 1);30 day operative mortality results: randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2004;364(9437):843-8. [MedLine]

242. Prinssen M, Verhoeven EL, Buth J, Cuypers PW, van Sambeek, Balm R, et al. The DREAM participants. A randomized trial comparing conventional and endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:1607-18. [MedLine]

243. Blankensteijn JD, de Jong SE, Prinssen M, van der Ham AC, But J, van Sterkenburg et al. Dutch Randomized Endovascular Aneurysm Management (DREAM) Trial Group. Two-year outcomes after conventional or endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(23):2398-405. [MedLine]

244. EVAR Trial participants. Endovascular aneurysm repair versus open repair in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR Trial1): randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;365(9478):2179-86. [MedLine]

245. Peppelenbosch N, Buth J, Harris PL, van Marrewijk C, Fransen G; EUROSTAR Collaborators. Diameter of abdominal aortic aneurysm and outcome of endovascular aneurysm repair: does size matter? A report from EUROSTAR. J Vasc Surg. 2004;39(2):288-97. [MedLine]

246. Welborn MB 3rd, Yau FS, Modrall JG, Lopez JA, Floyd S, Valentine RJ, et al. Endovascular repair of small abdominal aortic aneurysms: a paradigm shift? Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2005;39(5):381-91.

247. Cao P; CAESAR Trial Collaborators. Comparison of surveillance vs Aortic Endografting for Small Aneurysm Repair (CAESAR) trial: study design and progress. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2005;30(3):245-51. [MedLine]

248. The UK Small Aneurysm Trial Participants. Mortality results for randomised controlled trial of early elective surgery or ultrasonographic surveillance for small abdominal aortic aneurysms. Lancet. 1998;352(9141):1649-55. [MedLine]

249. Brown LC, Powell JT. Risk factors for aneurysm rupture in patients kept under ultrasound surveillance. UK Small Aneurysm Trial Participants. Ann Surg. 1999;230(3):289-96.

250. Ouriel K. The PIVOTAL study: a randomized comparison of endovascular repair versus surveillance in patients with smaller abdominal aortic aneurysms. J Vasc Surg. 2009;49(1):266-9. [MedLine]

251. Verhoeven EL, Kapma MR, Groen H, Tielliu IF, Zeebregts CJ, Bekkema F, et al. Mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm treated with open or endovascular repair. J Vasc Surg. 2008;48(6):1396-400. [MedLine]

252. Brewster DC, Cronenwett JL, Hallet JW, et al: Guidellines for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurism. Report of a subcommitee of the Joint Council of the American Association for Vascular Surgery and Society for Vascular Surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2003;37(5):1106-17. [MedLine]

The Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery is indexed in:

Support

CNPq CAPES





creative-commons-byAll scientific articles published at www.bjcvs.org are licensed under a Creative Commons license

Site map

All rights reserved 1997 / 2018 © Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery GN1