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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Management of sternum dehiscence in the postoperative period after cardiac surgery

Roberto Latorre Marques; Antoninho S Arnoni; Jarbas J Dinkhuysen; Paulo Chaccur; Camilo Abdulmassih Neto; Luiz Carlos Bento de Souza; Paulo P Paulista

DOI: 10.1590/S0102-76381990000200009

ABSTRACT

Ninety hundred and six patients with varied pathology (43% coronarian, 37% valvular, 17% congenital and 3% others) between december 1987 and december 1989, underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. In the intra-hospitalar postoperative'period there were nineteen cases of partial or total dehiscence of median thoracotomy (2%) which occurred, as an average, within the first week, being reoperated within a third week. In all cases, wound cultures showed predominance of gram positive bacteria and in few of them gram negative bacteria or fungii were found. There was only one case in which no infective agent was isolated. In this patient group, the existance of pre-disponent factors were observed, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and prolonged surgery time (average: beyond six hours). There was predominance of adult patients whose ages varied from forty to sixty seven years, with median age of fifty three years (89%). In 84% of the patients, internal mammary artery dissection had been carried out, to be used as vascular graft in surgical revascularization of the miocardium. Other than general therapeutic measures like local and specific systemic antibiotic therapy (to sterelize the infected wound), patients were taken to surgery proceeding with cleansing and debridement of surgical planes including the sternum, leaving in some cases continuous irrigation with povidine-iodine solution. A miocutaneous flap was rotated in two patients who were refractive to treatment. Of five cases with mediastinitis, three died because of multiple organ failure and sepsis. The remaining group presented favorable evolution and were discharged three weeks after surgical reoperation with appropriate consolidation of the surgical wound.

RESUMO

No período de dezembro de 1987 a dezembro de 1989, 906 pacientes foram submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca com circulação extracorpórea, no Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, sendo 43% coronarianos, 37% valvares, 17% congênitos e 3% outros. Dentre eles, observou-se, na fase intra-hospitalar de pós-operatório, a ocorrência de 19 casos de deiscência parcial ou total da toracotomia mediana (2%), que ocorreu, em média, ao redor da 1º semana de pós-operatório, tendo sido a reintervenção cirúrgica por volta da 3º semana. As culturas mostraram predomínio de germes gram positivos e poucos casos de gram negativos e fungos. Em apenas um caso não foi isolado qualquer agente infeccioso. Neste grupo de pacientes, constatou-se a presença de fatores predominantes, tais como diabetes, obesidade, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) e tempo prolongado de cirurgia (média de 6 horas). Houve predomínio de pacientes adultos, cujas idades variaram de 40 a 67 anos, média de 53 anos (89%). Constatou-se que, em 84% dos pacientes, a artéria mamária interna foi utilizada como enxerto na revascularização cirúrgica do miocárdio. Além das medidas gerais de terapêutica local e sistêmica com antibióticos específicos, visando ao combate dos agentes infecciosos e à conseqüente esterilização da ferida, os pacientes eram conduzidos à sala de operação, procedendo-se à limpeza e desbridamento dos planos cirúrgicos, incluindo o esterno, deixando-se, em alguns casos, irrigação contínua com solução de povidine. Em dois pacientes foi realizada rotação de retalho miocutâneo, devido à refratariedade ao tratamento. De cinco casos de mediastinite, três faleceram por falência de múltiplos órgãos e sepsis. O grupo restante apresentou boa evolução, tendo obtido alta hospitalar após a 3º semana da reintervenção, com boa cicatrização da ferida operatória.
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Article receive on Tuesday, February 20, 1990

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